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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 4417-4426;

Association of Overweight and Elevation with Chronic Knee and Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Center for Community-based Health Research and Education (COHRE), Organization for the Promotion of Project Research, Shimane University, 223-8 Enya-cho, Izumo, Shimane 693-8501, Japan
Department of Health Promotion and Exercise, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 900 Commonwealth Avenue East, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1, Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083, Japan
Physical Education and Medicine Research Center UNNAN, 1212-3 Mitoya, Mitoya, Unnan, Shimane 690-2404, Japan
Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre (CRC), Floor 11, Building 28, Jan Waldenströms Gata 35, Skåne University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmö, Sweden
Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University, Medical School Office Building (MSOB), 251 Campus Drive, MC 5411, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Shimane University School of Medicine, 89-1 Enya-cho, Izumo, Shimane 693-8501, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 February 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
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It is known that overweight is associated with chronic knee pain (CKP) and chronic low back pain (CLBP). Several risk factors for these conditions have been postulated, including age, sex, overweight, occupation, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, physical environment has been studied as a potential risk factor in recent years. However, the associations of overweight and physical environment with CKP and CLBP remains unclear. The aim of this study conducted in a rural mountainous region was to examine whether overweight individuals living at higher elevations have an increased probability of experiencing CKP and CLBP. In 2009, we conducted a mail survey with a random sample aged between 40 to 79 years. Questionnaires were sent to 6,000 individuals and a total of 4,559 individuals responded to this survey. After excluding the respondents with missing data, we conducted a logistic regression analysis of the data for 3,109 individuals. There was statistically significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of CKP for those who were overweight living at low elevation (aOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.21–2.98), moderate elevation (aOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.05–2.87), and high elevation (aOR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.31–3.46) than those who were not overweight living at low elevation. However, similar patterns were not observed for CLBP. Our results show that specific overweight–elevation associations were observed for CKP in a rural mountainous region. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical environment; overweight; chronic knee pain; chronic low back pain physical environment; overweight; chronic knee pain; chronic low back pain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Hamano, T.; Kamada, M.; Kitayuguchi, J.; Sundquist, K.; Sundquist, J.; Shiwaku, K. Association of Overweight and Elevation with Chronic Knee and Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 4417-4426.

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