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Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada
Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, University of Toronto, 33 Russell Street Toronto, ON, M5S 2S1, Canada
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 33 Russell Street Toronto, ON, M5S 2S1, Canada
Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Non-Smokers' Rights Association, Ottawa, ON, K1P 5G4, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2013; in revised form: 11 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Abstract: Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1) whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2) what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.
Keywords: tobacco; retail; availability; disparities; geospatial analysis; prevalence; school
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Chaiton, M.O.; Mecredy, G.C.; Cohen, J.E.; Tilson, M.L. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 7299-7309.
Chaiton MO, Mecredy GC, Cohen JE, Tilson ML. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(12):7299-7309.
Chaiton, Michael O.; Mecredy, Graham C.; Cohen, Joanna E.; Tilson, Melodie L. 2013. "Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 12: 7299-7309.