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Waterpipe Smoking among Middle and High School Jordanian Students: Patterns and Predictors
Department of Community and Mental Health, Faculty of Nursing, Hashemite University, Zarqa, P.O. Box 150459, 13115, Jordan
Wayne State University, College of Nursing, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, P.O. Box 3030, 22110, Jordan
School of Nursing & Institute for Drug and Alcohol Studies, Faculty of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2013; in revised form: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 28 November 2013 / Published: 12 December 2013
Abstract: Despite the increase in attention to waterpipe tobacco smoking, the patterns and predictors of this method of tobacco use among Jordanian youth are not well known. The current study was conducted to assess the patterns and the predictors of waterpipe tobacco smoking among school aged students in one of Jordan’s Central Governorates. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the patterns and predictors of waterpipe tobacco smoking among youth (grades 6, 8, 10 and 12). Using a multistage random sampling more than 1,000 students was selected. Data were collected using the Arabic Youth Tobacco Use Composite Measure (YTUCM). Waterpipe smoking was assessed for “past 12 months”, “past month” and “past week”. Students’ ages ranged from 11 to 18 years, (mean age ± 14.7; SD ± 1.9 years). The percentage of girls who smoked waterpipe was greater for all frequencies of use than it was for boys. Age, gender, and belief that smoking makes more friends were predictors of smoking among study participants. This is the first known study to examine waterpipe smoking among youth aged 11 and 12. Our findings illustrate the need for public health campaigns to reach and educate youth, their families, teachers and school systems regarding the growing recognized health risks of waterpipe smoking.
Keywords: Jordan; waterpipe smoking; predictors; youth
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Alzyoud, S.; Weglicki, L.S.; Kheirallah, K.A.; Haddad, L.; Alhawamdeh, K.A. Waterpipe Smoking among Middle and High School Jordanian Students: Patterns and Predictors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 7068-7082.
Alzyoud S, Weglicki LS, Kheirallah KA, Haddad L, Alhawamdeh KA. Waterpipe Smoking among Middle and High School Jordanian Students: Patterns and Predictors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(12):7068-7082.
Alzyoud, Sukaina; Weglicki, Linda S.; Kheirallah, Khalid A.; Haddad, Linda; Alhawamdeh, Khalid A. 2013. "Waterpipe Smoking among Middle and High School Jordanian Students: Patterns and Predictors." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 12: 7068-7082.