Next Article in Journal
Combined Effects of UVR and Temperature on the Survival of Crab Larvae (Zoea I) from Patagonia: The Role of UV-Absorbing Compounds
Next Article in Special Issue
Intramolecular Modulation of Serine Protease Inhibitor Activity in a Marine Cyanobacterium with Antifeedant Properties
Previous Article in Journal
Cloning and Characterization of Glutamate Receptors in Californian Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Investigation of Pectenotoxin Profiles in the Yellow Sea (China) Using a Passive Sampling Technique
Open AccessReview

On the Chemistry, Toxicology and Genetics of the Cyanobacterial Toxins, Microcystin, Nodularin, Saxitoxin and Cylindrospermopsin

1
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia
2
School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, The University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, NSW, 2560, Australia
3
Department of Molecular Biology, The University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7803, 5020 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(5), 1650-1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/md8051650
Received: 26 March 2010 / Revised: 2 May 2010 / Accepted: 6 May 2010 / Published: 10 May 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins)
The cyanobacteria or “blue-green algae”, as they are commonly termed, comprise a diverse group of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that inhabit a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial environments, and display incredible morphological diversity. Many aquatic, bloom-forming species of cyanobacteria are capable of producing biologically active secondary metabolites, which are highly toxic to humans and other animals. From a toxicological viewpoint, the cyanotoxins span four major classes: the neurotoxins, hepatotoxins, cytotoxins, and dermatoxins (irritant toxins). However, structurally they are quite diverse. Over the past decade, the biosynthesis pathways of the four major cyanotoxins: microcystin, nodularin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin, have been genetically and biochemically elucidated. This review provides an overview of these biosynthesis pathways and additionally summarizes the chemistry and toxicology of these remarkable secondary metabolites. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanotoxin; non-ribosomal peptide; polyketide; alkaloid; toxicology cyanotoxin; non-ribosomal peptide; polyketide; alkaloid; toxicology
MDPI and ACS Style

Pearson, L.; Mihali, T.; Moffitt, M.; Kellmann, R.; Neilan, B. On the Chemistry, Toxicology and Genetics of the Cyanobacterial Toxins, Microcystin, Nodularin, Saxitoxin and Cylindrospermopsin. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 1650-1680. https://doi.org/10.3390/md8051650

AMA Style

Pearson L, Mihali T, Moffitt M, Kellmann R, Neilan B. On the Chemistry, Toxicology and Genetics of the Cyanobacterial Toxins, Microcystin, Nodularin, Saxitoxin and Cylindrospermopsin. Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(5):1650-1680. https://doi.org/10.3390/md8051650

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pearson, Leanne; Mihali, Troco; Moffitt, Michelle; Kellmann, Ralf; Neilan, Brett. 2010. "On the Chemistry, Toxicology and Genetics of the Cyanobacterial Toxins, Microcystin, Nodularin, Saxitoxin and Cylindrospermopsin" Mar. Drugs 8, no. 5: 1650-1680. https://doi.org/10.3390/md8051650

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop