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Seaweed Protein Hydrolysates and Bioactive Peptides: Extraction, Purification, and Applications

1
Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Ourense Campus, University of Vigo, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
2
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
3
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
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Department of Science, Institute for Information Technologies Kragujevac, University of Kragujevac, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia
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Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, State University of Novi Pazar, Vuka Karadžića bb, 36300 Novi Pazar, Serbia
6
International Research Center for Food Nutrition and Safety, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the publication.
Academic Editor: Marc Diederich
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(9), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19090500
Received: 13 August 2021 / Revised: 28 August 2021 / Accepted: 28 August 2021 / Published: 31 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutra-Cosmeceuticals from Algae for Health and Wellness)
Seaweeds are industrially exploited for obtaining pigments, polysaccharides, or phenolic compounds with application in diverse fields. Nevertheless, their rich composition in fiber, minerals, and proteins, has pointed them as a useful source of these components. Seaweed proteins are nutritionally valuable and include several specific enzymes, glycoproteins, cell wall-attached proteins, phycobiliproteins, lectins, or peptides. Extraction of seaweed proteins requires the application of disruptive methods due to the heterogeneous cell wall composition of each macroalgae group. Hence, non-protein molecules like phenolics or polysaccharides may also be co-extracted, affecting the extraction yield. Therefore, depending on the macroalgae and target protein characteristics, the sample pretreatment, extraction and purification techniques must be carefully chosen. Traditional methods like solid–liquid or enzyme-assisted extraction (SLE or EAE) have proven successful. However, alternative techniques as ultrasound- or microwave-assisted extraction (UAE or MAE) can be more efficient. To obtain protein hydrolysates, these proteins are subjected to hydrolyzation reactions, whether with proteases or physical or chemical treatments that disrupt the proteins native folding. These hydrolysates and derived peptides are accounted for bioactive properties, like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, or antihypertensive activities, which can be applied to different sectors. In this work, current methods and challenges for protein extraction and purification from seaweeds are addressed, focusing on their potential industrial applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: seaweed; protein; extraction; bioactive peptides; industrial application seaweed; protein; extraction; bioactive peptides; industrial application
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MDPI and ACS Style

Echave, J.; Fraga-Corral, M.; Garcia-Perez, P.; Popović-Djordjević, J.; H. Avdović, E.; Radulović, M.; Xiao, J.; A. Prieto, M.; Simal-Gandara, J. Seaweed Protein Hydrolysates and Bioactive Peptides: Extraction, Purification, and Applications. Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 500. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19090500

AMA Style

Echave J, Fraga-Corral M, Garcia-Perez P, Popović-Djordjević J, H. Avdović E, Radulović M, Xiao J, A. Prieto M, Simal-Gandara J. Seaweed Protein Hydrolysates and Bioactive Peptides: Extraction, Purification, and Applications. Marine Drugs. 2021; 19(9):500. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19090500

Chicago/Turabian Style

Echave, Javier, Maria Fraga-Corral, Pascual Garcia-Perez, Jelena Popović-Djordjević, Edina H. Avdović, Milanka Radulović, Jianbo Xiao, Miguel A. Prieto, and Jesus Simal-Gandara. 2021. "Seaweed Protein Hydrolysates and Bioactive Peptides: Extraction, Purification, and Applications" Marine Drugs 19, no. 9: 500. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19090500

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