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Article

First Detection of Tetrodotoxins in the Cotylean Flatworm Prosthiostomum trilineatum

1
Department of Marine Science and Resources, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0880, Japan
2
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
3
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19010040
Received: 7 December 2020 / Revised: 14 January 2021 / Accepted: 15 January 2021 / Published: 18 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins in Non-traditional Vectors)
Several polyclad flatworm species are known to contain high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX), but currently TTX-bearing flatworms seem to be restricted to specific Planocera lineages belonging to the suborder Acotylea. During our ongoing study of flatworm toxins, high concentrations of TTXs were detected for the first time in the flatworm Prosthiostomum trilineatum, suborder Cotylea, from the coastal area of Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan. Toxin levels were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), revealing that this species contains comparable concentrations of toxins as seen in planocerid flatworms such as Planocera multitentaculata. This finding indicated that there may be other species with significant levels of TTXs. The distribution of TTXs among other flatworm species is thus of great interest. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; analog; LC-MS/MS; flatworms; Polycladida; Cotylea tetrodotoxin; analog; LC-MS/MS; flatworms; Polycladida; Cotylea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Suo, R.; Kashitani, M.; Oyama, H.; Adachi, M.; Nakahigashi, R.; Sakakibara, R.; Nishikawa, T.; Sugita, H.; Itoi, S. First Detection of Tetrodotoxins in the Cotylean Flatworm Prosthiostomum trilineatum. Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19010040

AMA Style

Suo R, Kashitani M, Oyama H, Adachi M, Nakahigashi R, Sakakibara R, Nishikawa T, Sugita H, Itoi S. First Detection of Tetrodotoxins in the Cotylean Flatworm Prosthiostomum trilineatum. Marine Drugs. 2021; 19(1):40. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19010040

Chicago/Turabian Style

Suo, Rei, Maho Kashitani, Hikaru Oyama, Masaatsu Adachi, Ryota Nakahigashi, Ryo Sakakibara, Toshio Nishikawa, Haruo Sugita, and Shiro Itoi. 2021. "First Detection of Tetrodotoxins in the Cotylean Flatworm Prosthiostomum trilineatum" Marine Drugs 19, no. 1: 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19010040

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