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Characterising Functional Venom Profiles of Anthozoans and Medusozoans within Their Ecological Context
Open AccessArticle

Transcriptomic Analysis of Four Cerianthid (Cnidaria, Ceriantharia) Venoms

1
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, 1200 Sunnyside Ave., Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
2
Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd, Charlotte, NC 28262, USA
3
Department of Biology, Florida Southern College, 111 Lake Hollingsworth, Drive Lakeland, FL 33801, USA
4
Department of Biological Sciences, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), FCL, Assis, SP 19806, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(8), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18080413
Received: 28 June 2020 / Revised: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 22 July 2020 / Published: 5 August 2020
Tube anemones, or cerianthids, are a phylogenetically informative group of cnidarians with complex life histories, including a pelagic larval stage and tube-dwelling adult stage, both known to utilize venom in stinging-cell rich tentacles. Cnidarians are an entirely venomous group that utilize their proteinaceous-dominated toxins to capture prey and defend against predators, in addition to several other ecological functions, including intraspecific interactions. At present there are no studies describing the venom for any species within cerianthids. Given their unique development, ecology, and distinct phylogenetic-placement within Cnidaria, our objective is to evaluate the venom-like gene diversity of four species of cerianthids from newly collected transcriptomic data. We identified 525 venom-like genes between all four species. The venom-gene profile for each species was dominated by enzymatic protein and peptide families, which is consistent with previous findings in other cnidarian venoms. However, we found few toxins that are typical of sea anemones and corals, and furthermore, three of the four species express toxin-like genes closely related to potent pore-forming toxins in box jellyfish. Our study is the first to provide a survey of the putative venom composition of cerianthids and contributes to our general understanding of the diversity of cnidarian toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anthozoa; tube anemone; transcriptome; toxins; venom-like; Pachycerianthus cf. maua; Pachycerianthus borealis; Isarachnanthus nocturnus; Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis Anthozoa; tube anemone; transcriptome; toxins; venom-like; Pachycerianthus cf. maua; Pachycerianthus borealis; Isarachnanthus nocturnus; Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Klompen, A.M.L.; Macrander, J.; Reitzel, A.M.; Stampar, S.N. Transcriptomic Analysis of Four Cerianthid (Cnidaria, Ceriantharia) Venoms. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 413. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18080413

AMA Style

Klompen AML, Macrander J, Reitzel AM, Stampar SN. Transcriptomic Analysis of Four Cerianthid (Cnidaria, Ceriantharia) Venoms. Marine Drugs. 2020; 18(8):413. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18080413

Chicago/Turabian Style

Klompen, Anna M.L.; Macrander, Jason; Reitzel, Adam M.; Stampar, Sérgio N. 2020. "Transcriptomic Analysis of Four Cerianthid (Cnidaria, Ceriantharia) Venoms" Mar. Drugs 18, no. 8: 413. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18080413

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