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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of a New Mixture of Mono-Rhamnolipids Produced by Pseudomonas gessardii Isolated from Edmonson Point (Antarctica)

1
Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, National Research Council, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Marine Biotechnology, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80125 Naples, Italy
3
Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80138 Naples, Italy
4
Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, 84084 Salerno, Italy
5
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: TBI-INSA, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, 31400 Toulouse, France.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(5), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18050269
Received: 20 April 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Papers from MarPipe and Ocean Medicines)
Rhamnolipids (RLs) are surface-active molecules mainly produced by Pseudomonas spp. Antarctica is one of the less explored places on Earth and bioprospecting for novel RL producer strains represents a promising strategy for the discovery of novel structures. In the present study, 34 cultivable bacteria isolated from Edmonson Point Lake, Ross Sea, Antarctica were subjected to preliminary screening for the biosurfactant activity. The positive strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the produced RLs were characterized by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRESIMS) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), resulting in a new mixture of 17 different RL congeners, with six previously undescribed RLs. We explored the influence of the carbon source on the RL composition using 12 different raw materials, such as monosaccharides, polysaccharides and petroleum industry derivatives, reporting for the first time the production of RLs using, as sole carbon source, anthracene and benzene. Moreover, we investigated the antimicrobial potential of the RL mixture, towards a panel of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, reporting very interesting results towards Listeria monocytogenes with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 3.13 µg/mL. Finally, we report for the first time the antimicrobial activity of RLs towards three strains of the emerging multidrug resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with MIC values of 12.5 µg/mL. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antarctica; bioprospecting; rhamnolipid; antimicrobials Antarctica; bioprospecting; rhamnolipid; antimicrobials
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Buonocore, C.; Tedesco, P.; Vitale, G.A.; Palma Esposito, F.; Giugliano, R.; Monti, M.C.; D’Auria, M.V.; de Pascale, D. Characterization of a New Mixture of Mono-Rhamnolipids Produced by Pseudomonas gessardii Isolated from Edmonson Point (Antarctica). Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 269.

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