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Anti-Influenza A Virus Activity of Rhamnan Sulfate from Green Algae Monostroma nitidum in Mice with Normal and Compromised Immunity

1
Konan Chemical Manufacturing Co., LTD., 1515 Kitagomizuka, Kusu-cho, Yokkaichi, Mie 510-0103, Japan
2
Graduate School of Engineering, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501, Japan
3
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
4
College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(5), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18050254
Received: 6 March 2020 / Revised: 3 May 2020 / Accepted: 9 May 2020 / Published: 13 May 2020
Influenza viruses cause a significant public health burden each year despite the availability of anti-influenza drugs and vaccines. Therefore, new anti-influenza virus agents are needed. Rhamnan sulfate (RS) is a sulfated polysaccharide derived from the green alga Monostroma nitidum. Here, we aimed to demonstrate the antiviral activity of RS, especially against influenza A virus (IFV) infection, in vitro and in vivo. RS showed inhibitory effects on viral proliferation of enveloped viruses in vitro. Evaluation of the anti-IFV activity of RS in vitro showed that it inhibited both virus adsorption and entry steps. The oral administration of RS in IFV-infected immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice suppressed viral proliferation in both mouse types. The oral administration of RS also had stimulatory effects on neutralizing antibody production. Fluorescent analysis showed that RS colocalized with M cells in Peyer’s patches, suggesting that RS bound to the M cells and may be incorporated into the Peyer’s patches, which are essential to intestinal immunity. In summary, RS inhibits influenza virus infection and promotes antibody production, suggesting that RS is a potential candidate for the treatment of influenza virus infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: antiviral; influenza virus; rhamnan sulfate antiviral; influenza virus; rhamnan sulfate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Terasawa, M.; Hayashi, K.; Lee, J.-B.; Nishiura, K.; Matsuda, K.; Hayashi, T.; Kawahara, T. Anti-Influenza A Virus Activity of Rhamnan Sulfate from Green Algae Monostroma nitidum in Mice with Normal and Compromised Immunity. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 254.

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