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Open AccessArticle

Antioxidant, Hypolipidemic and Hepatic Protective Activities of Polysaccharides from Phascolosoma esculenta

by Yaqing Wu 1,2,3, Hongying Jiang 1,2, Jyuan-Siou Lin 3, Jia Liu 1,2, Chang-Jer Wu 3,4,5,6,* and Ruian Xu 1,2,7,*
1
Institute of Molecular Medicine, School of Biomedical Sciences & School of Medicine, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021, China
2
Engineering Research Center of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education & Fujian Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Xiamen 361021, China
3
Department of Food Science and Center of Excellence for the Oceans, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
4
Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
5
Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
6
Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807378, Taiwan
7
Xiamen Key Laboratory of Marine and Gene Drugs, Xiamen 361021, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18030158
Received: 18 February 2020 / Revised: 29 February 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 12 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Anti-Hyperlipidemic Drugs)
The aims of this study were to investigate the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and hepatic protective effects of Phascolosoma esculenta polysaccharides (PEP). PEP was prepared from Phascolosoma esculenta by enzyme hydrolysis and its characterization was analyzed. The antioxidant activities of PEP were evaluated by the assays of scavenging 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion, hydroxyl radicals and chelating ferrous ion in vitro. It showed that PEP could scavenge radicals effectively and had favorable antioxidant activities. In the meantime, the hypolipidemic effect of PEP was investigated in vivo by using mice model fed with high-fat diet with or without PEP treatment. Compared with the hyperlipidemic mice without treatment, the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) (30.1–35.7%, p < 0.01), triglyceride (TG) (24.5–50.8%, p < 0.01 or p < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (49.6–56.8%, p < 0.01) and liver levels of TC (21.0–28.4%, p < 0.01), TG (23.8–37.0%, p < 0.01) decreased significantly, whereas serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (47.7–59.9%, p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) increased significantly after treatment with different dosage of PEP (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g per kg body weight, respectively). In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) (10.2–22.2% and 18.8–26.9%, p < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (11.9–15.4% and 26.6–30.4%, p < 0.05) activities in serum and liver enhanced markedly while aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (18.7–29.6% and 42.4–58.0%, p < 0.05), alanine transaminase (ALT) (42.7–46.0% and 31.2–42.2%, p < 0.05) activities, as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) (15.9–24.4% and 15.0–16.8%, p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) in serum and liver reduced markedly. Moreover, the histopathological observation of livers indicated that PEP could attenuate liver cell injury. The animal experimental results demonstrated that PEP exerted hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective roles in hyperlipidemic mice. In summary, our results above suggest that PEP might be a potential natural antioxidant and utilized as a therapeutic candidate for hyperlipidemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phascolosoma esculenta; polysaccharide; antioxidant activity; hypolipidemic effect; hepatic protective effects Phascolosoma esculenta; polysaccharide; antioxidant activity; hypolipidemic effect; hepatic protective effects
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Wu, Y.; Jiang, H.; Lin, J.-S.; Liu, J.; Wu, C.-J.; Xu, R. Antioxidant, Hypolipidemic and Hepatic Protective Activities of Polysaccharides from Phascolosoma esculenta. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 158.

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