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Ecological and Industrial Implications of Dynamic Seaweed-Associated Microbiota Interactions

1
Department of Nanomedicine, California Innovations Corporation, San Diego, CA 92037, USA
2
College of Chemical Sciences, Institute of Chemistry Ceylon, Rajagiriya 10107, Sri Lanka
3
Department of Biological Sciences, International Islamic University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
4
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China
5
Department of Pharmacy, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan 29050, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(12), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18120641
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 9 December 2020 / Accepted: 13 December 2020 / Published: 14 December 2020
Seaweeds are broadly distributed and represent an important source of secondary metabolites (e.g., halogenated compounds, polyphenols) eliciting various pharmacological activities and playing a relevant ecological role in the anti-epibiosis. Importantly, host (as known as basibiont such as algae)–microbe (as known as epibiont such as bacteria) interaction (as known as halobiont) is a driving force for coevolution in the marine environment. Nevertheless, halobionts may be fundamental (harmless) or detrimental (harmful) to the functioning of the host. In addition to biotic factors, abiotic factors (e.g., pH, salinity, temperature, nutrients) regulate halobionts. Spatiotemporal and functional exploration of such dynamic interactions appear crucial. Indeed, environmental stress in a constantly changing ocean may disturb complex mutualistic relations, through mechanisms involving host chemical defense strategies (e.g., secretion of secondary metabolites and antifouling chemicals by quorum sensing). It is worth mentioning that many of bioactive compounds, such as terpenoids, previously attributed to macroalgae are in fact produced or metabolized by their associated microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites). Eventually, recent metagenomics analyses suggest that microbes may have acquired seaweed associated genes because of increased seaweed in diets. This article retrospectively reviews pertinent studies on the spatiotemporal and functional seaweed-associated microbiota interactions which can lead to the production of bioactive compounds with high antifouling, theranostic, and biotechnological potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: seaweeds; microbiome; holobiont; epibiosis; basibiont; environmental stress; quorum sensing; fouling; biofilm disruption; secondary metabolites seaweeds; microbiome; holobiont; epibiosis; basibiont; environmental stress; quorum sensing; fouling; biofilm disruption; secondary metabolites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Menaa, F.; Wijesinghe, P.A.U.I.; Thiripuranathar, G.; Uzair, B.; Iqbal, H.; Khan, B.A.; Menaa, B. Ecological and Industrial Implications of Dynamic Seaweed-Associated Microbiota Interactions. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 641. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18120641

AMA Style

Menaa F, Wijesinghe PAUI, Thiripuranathar G, Uzair B, Iqbal H, Khan BA, Menaa B. Ecological and Industrial Implications of Dynamic Seaweed-Associated Microbiota Interactions. Marine Drugs. 2020; 18(12):641. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18120641

Chicago/Turabian Style

Menaa, Farid, P. A.U.I. Wijesinghe, Gobika Thiripuranathar, Bushra Uzair, Haroon Iqbal, Barkat A. Khan, and Bouzid Menaa. 2020. "Ecological and Industrial Implications of Dynamic Seaweed-Associated Microbiota Interactions" Marine Drugs 18, no. 12: 641. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18120641

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