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Open AccessArticle

Sodium Alginate as a Potential Therapeutic Filler: An In Vivo Study in Rats

Department of Plastic Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan
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Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(10), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18100520
Received: 21 August 2020 / Revised: 13 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 19 October 2020
Filler injection demand is increasing worldwide, but no ideal filler with safety and longevity currently exists. Sodium alginate (SA) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, which is a polymeric polysaccharide obtained by linear polymerization of two types of uronic acid, d-mannuronic acid (M) and l-guluronic acid (G). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic value of SA. Nine SA types with different M/G ratios and viscosities were tested and compared with a commercially available sodium hyaluronate (SH) filler. Three injection modes (onto the periosteum, intradermally, or subcutaneously) were used in six rats for each substance, and the animals were sacrificed at 4 or 24 weeks. Changes in the diameter and volume were measured macroscopically and by computed tomography, and histopathological evaluations were performed. SA with a low M/G ratio generally maintained skin uplift. The bulge gradually decreased over time but slightly increased at 4 weeks in some samples. No capsule formation was observed around SA. However, granulomatous reactions, including macrophage recruitment, were observed 4 weeks after SA implantation, although fewer macrophages and granulomatous reactions were observed at 24 weeks. The long-term volumizing effects and degree of granulomatous reactions differed depending on the M/G ratio and viscosity. By contrast, SH showed capsule formation but with minimal granulomatous reactions. The beneficial and adverse effects of SA as a filler differed according to the viscosity or M/G ratio, suggesting a better long-term volumizing effect than SH with relatively low immunogenicity View Full-Text
Keywords: filler; sodium alginate; alginic acid; sodium hyaluronate; hyaluronic acid; granuloma; capsule filler; sodium alginate; alginic acid; sodium hyaluronate; hyaluronic acid; granuloma; capsule
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mori, M.; Asahi, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Mashiko, T.; Yoshizumi, K.; Saito, N.; Shirado, T.; Wu, Y.; Yoshimura, K. Sodium Alginate as a Potential Therapeutic Filler: An In Vivo Study in Rats. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 520. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18100520

AMA Style

Mori M, Asahi R, Yamamoto Y, Mashiko T, Yoshizumi K, Saito N, Shirado T, Wu Y, Yoshimura K. Sodium Alginate as a Potential Therapeutic Filler: An In Vivo Study in Rats. Marine Drugs. 2020; 18(10):520. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18100520

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mori, Masanori; Asahi, Rintaro; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Mashiko, Takanobu; Yoshizumi, Kayo; Saito, Natsumi; Shirado, Takako; Wu, Yunyan; Yoshimura, Kotaro. 2020. "Sodium Alginate as a Potential Therapeutic Filler: An In Vivo Study in Rats" Mar. Drugs 18, no. 10: 520. https://doi.org/10.3390/md18100520

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