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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Temperature, Growth Media, and Photoperiod on Growth and Toxin Production of Azadinium spinosum

Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, H91 R673 Co. Galway, Ireland
Biochemistry Department, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, H91 TK33 Galway, Ireland
Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Chemische Ökologie, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(9), 489;
Received: 4 July 2019 / Revised: 13 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 22 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds Derived from Marine Microalgae)
Azaspiracids (AZAs) are microalgal toxins that can accumulate in shellfish and lead to human intoxications. To facilitate their study and subsequent biomonitoring, purification from microalgae rather than shellfish is preferable; however, challenges remain with respect to maximizing toxin yields. The impacts of temperature, growth media, and photoperiod on cell densities and toxin production in Azadinium spinosum were investigated. Final cell densities were similar at 10 and 18 °C, while toxin cell quotas were higher (~3.5-fold) at 10 °C. A comparison of culture media showed higher cell densities and AZA cell quotas (2.5–5-fold) in f10k compared to f/2 and L1 media. Photoperiod also showed differences, with lower cell densities in the 8:16 L:D treatment, while toxin cell quotas were similar for 12:12 and 8:16 L:D treatments but slightly lower for the 16:8 L:D treatment. AZA1, -2, and -33 were detected during the exponential phase, while some known and new AZAs were only detected once the stationary phase was reached. These compounds were additionally detected in field water samples during an AZA event. View Full-Text
Keywords: azaspiracid; Azadinium spinosum; culturing; mass spectrometry; shellfish azaspiracid; Azadinium spinosum; culturing; mass spectrometry; shellfish
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kilcoyne, J.; McCoy, A.; Burrell, S.; Krock, B.; Tillmann, U. Effects of Temperature, Growth Media, and Photoperiod on Growth and Toxin Production of Azadinium spinosum. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 489.

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