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Open AccessArticle

Indole-4-carboxaldehyde Isolated from Seaweed, Sargassum thunbergii, Attenuates Methylglyoxal-Induced Hepatic Inflammation

by 1,†, 2,3,†, 4 and Hee-Sook Jun 2,3,5,*
1
Department of Marine Biomedical Sciences, Hanseo University, Chungcheongnam-do 31962, Korea
2
Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, Korea
3
College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, Korea
4
Jeju International Marine Science Center for Research & Education, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST), Jeju 63349, Korea
5
Gachon Medical and Convergence Institute, Gachon Gil Medical Center, Incheon 21999, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(9), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17090486
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 21 August 2019
Glucose degradation is aberrantly increased in hyperglycemia, which causes various harmful effects on the liver. Glyoxalase-1 (Glo-1) is a ubiquitous cellular enzyme that participates in the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MGO), a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis that induces protein modification (advanced glycation end-products, AGEs) and inflammation. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of indole-4-carboxaldehyde (ST-I4C), which was isolated from the edible seaweed Sargassum thunbergii, on MGO-induced inflammation in HepG2 cells, a human hepatocyte cell line. ST-I4C attenuated the MGO-induced expression of inflammatory-related genes, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IFN-γ by activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) without toxicity in HepG2 cells. In addition, ST-I4C reduced the MGO-induced AGE formation and the expression of the receptor for AGE (RAGE). Interestingly, both the mRNA and protein expression levels of Glo-1 increased following ST-I4C treatment, and the decrease in Glo-1 mRNA expression caused by MGO exposure was rescued by ST-I4C pretreatment. These results suggest that ST-I4C shows anti-inflammatory activity against MGO-induced inflammation in human hepatocytes by preventing an increase in the pro-inflammatory gene expression and AGE formation. Therefore, it represents a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatic steatosis; metabolic disease; AGEs; seaweed; Sargassum thunbergii hepatic steatosis; metabolic disease; AGEs; seaweed; Sargassum thunbergii
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Cha, S.-H.; Hwang, Y.; Heo, S.-J.; Jun, H.-S. Indole-4-carboxaldehyde Isolated from Seaweed, Sargassum thunbergii, Attenuates Methylglyoxal-Induced Hepatic Inflammation. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 486.

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