Next Article in Journal
Therapeutic Effects of Fucoidan: A Review on Recent Studies
Previous Article in Journal
Inhibition Effect of Triglyceride Accumulation by Large Yellow Croaker Roe DHA-PC in HepG2 Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Anti-Thrombin, Anti-Adhesive, Anti-Migratory, and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Sulfated Galactans from the Tropical Green Seaweed, Udotea flabellum
Open AccessArticle

Indole-4-carboxaldehyde Isolated from Seaweed, Sargassum thunbergii, Attenuates Methylglyoxal-Induced Hepatic Inflammation

by 1,†, 2,3,†, 4 and Hee-Sook Jun 2,3,5,*
Department of Marine Biomedical Sciences, Hanseo University, Chungcheongnam-do 31962, Korea
Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, Korea
College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, Korea
Jeju International Marine Science Center for Research & Education, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST), Jeju 63349, Korea
Gachon Medical and Convergence Institute, Gachon Gil Medical Center, Incheon 21999, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(9), 486;
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 21 August 2019
Glucose degradation is aberrantly increased in hyperglycemia, which causes various harmful effects on the liver. Glyoxalase-1 (Glo-1) is a ubiquitous cellular enzyme that participates in the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MGO), a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis that induces protein modification (advanced glycation end-products, AGEs) and inflammation. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of indole-4-carboxaldehyde (ST-I4C), which was isolated from the edible seaweed Sargassum thunbergii, on MGO-induced inflammation in HepG2 cells, a human hepatocyte cell line. ST-I4C attenuated the MGO-induced expression of inflammatory-related genes, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IFN-γ by activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) without toxicity in HepG2 cells. In addition, ST-I4C reduced the MGO-induced AGE formation and the expression of the receptor for AGE (RAGE). Interestingly, both the mRNA and protein expression levels of Glo-1 increased following ST-I4C treatment, and the decrease in Glo-1 mRNA expression caused by MGO exposure was rescued by ST-I4C pretreatment. These results suggest that ST-I4C shows anti-inflammatory activity against MGO-induced inflammation in human hepatocytes by preventing an increase in the pro-inflammatory gene expression and AGE formation. Therefore, it represents a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatic steatosis; metabolic disease; AGEs; seaweed; Sargassum thunbergii hepatic steatosis; metabolic disease; AGEs; seaweed; Sargassum thunbergii
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Cha, S.-H.; Hwang, Y.; Heo, S.-J.; Jun, H.-S. Indole-4-carboxaldehyde Isolated from Seaweed, Sargassum thunbergii, Attenuates Methylglyoxal-Induced Hepatic Inflammation. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 486.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop