Marine organisms provide an abundant source of potential medicines. Many of the marine-derived biomaterials have been shown to act as different mechanisms in immune responses, and in each case they can significantly control the immune system to produce effective reactions. Marine-derived proteins, peptides, and protein hydrolysates exhibit various physiologic functions, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, the immunomodulatory properties of several antimicrobial peptides have been demonstrated. Some of these peptides directly kill bacteria and exhibit a variety of immunomodulatory activities that improve the host innate immune response and effectively eliminate infection. The properties of immunomodulatory proteins and peptides correlate with their amino acid composition, sequence, and length. Proteins and peptides with immunomodulatory properties have been tested in vitro and in vivo, and some of them have undergone different clinical and preclinical trials. This review provides a comprehensive overview of marine immunomodulatory proteins, peptides, and protein hydrolysates as well as their production, mechanisms of action, and applications in human therapy.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited