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The Inhibitory Effect of Propylene Glycol Alginate Sodium Sulfate on Fibroblast Growth Factor 2-Mediated Angiogenesis and Invasion in Murine Melanoma B16-F10 Cells In Vitro

1, 1,2,3,4,*, 1, 1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4, 1,3 and 1,2,3,4,*
1
Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs of Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial, Key Laboratory of Glycoscience and Glycotechnology, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
2
Innovation Center for Marine Drug Screening & Evaluation, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China
3
Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts of Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China
4
Marine Biomedical Research Institute of Qingdao, Qingdao 266071, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(5), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17050257
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 6 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur-Containing Marine Bioactives)
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Abstract

Melanoma is one of the most malignant and aggressive types of cancer worldwide. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is one of the critical regulators of melanoma angiogenesis and metastasis; thus, it might be an effective anti-cancer strategy to explore FGF2-targeting drug candidates from existing drugs. In this study, we evaluate the effect of the marine drug propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) on FGF2-mediated angiogenesis and invasion. The data shows that FGF2 selectively bound to PSS with high affinity. PSS inhibited FGF2-mediated angiogenesis in a rat aortic ring model and suppressed FGF2-mediated invasion, but not the migration of murine melanoma B16-F10 cells. The further mechanism study indicates that PSS decreased the expression of activated matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and also suppressed their activity. In addition, PSS was found to decrease the level of Vimentin in B16-F10 cells, which is known to participate in the epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Notably, PSS did not elicit any changes in cancer cell viability. Based on the results above, we conclude that PSS might be a potential drug to regulate the tumor microenvironment in order to facilitate the recovery of melanoma patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate; angiogenesis; invasion; FGF2; MMP-2; MMP-9 propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate; angiogenesis; invasion; FGF2; MMP-2; MMP-9
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Ma, H.; Qiu, P.; Xu, H.; Xu, X.; Xin, M.; Chu, Y.; Guan, H.; Li, C.; Yang, J. The Inhibitory Effect of Propylene Glycol Alginate Sodium Sulfate on Fibroblast Growth Factor 2-Mediated Angiogenesis and Invasion in Murine Melanoma B16-F10 Cells In Vitro. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 257.

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