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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 166;

Anti-Diabetic Activity of 2,3,6-Tribromo-4,5-Dihydroxybenzyl Derivatives from Symphyocladia latiuscula through PTP1B Downregulation and α-Glucosidase Inhibition

Department of Food and Life Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Changshin University, Gyeongsangnam-do, Changwon 51352, Korea
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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The marine alga, Symphyocladia latiuscula (Harvey) Yamada, is a good source of bromophenols with numerous biological activities. This study aims to characterize the anti-diabetic potential of 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl derivatives isolated from S. latiuscula via their inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase. Additionally, this study uses in silico modeling and glucose uptake potential analysis in insulin-resistant (IR) HepG2 cells to reveal the mechanism of anti-diabetic activity. This bioassay-guided isolation led to the discovery of three potent bromophenols that act against PTP1B and α-glucosidase: 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether (2), and bis-(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether) (3). All compounds inhibited the target enzymes by 50% at concentrations below 10 μM. The activity of 1 and 2 was comparable to ursolic acid (IC50; 8.66 ± 0.82 μM); however, 3 was more potent (IC50; 5.29 ± 0.08 μM) against PTP1B. Interestingly, the activity of 13 against α-glucosidase was 30–110 times higher than acarbose (IC50; 212.66 ± 0.35 μM). Again, 3 was the most potent α-glucosidase inhibitor (IC50; 1.92 ± 0.02 μM). Similarly, 13 showed concentration-dependent glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and downregulated PTP1B expression. Enzyme kinetics revealed different modes of inhibition. In silico molecular docking simulations demonstrated the importance of the 7–OH group for H-bond formation and bromine/phenyl ring number for halogen-bond interactions. These results suggest that bromophenols from S. latiuscula, especially highly brominated 3, are inhibitors of PTP1B and α-glucosidase, enhance insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and may represent a novel class of anti-diabetic drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Symphyocladia latiuscula; bromophenols; PTP1B; insulin-resistant HepG2; diabetes Symphyocladia latiuscula; bromophenols; PTP1B; insulin-resistant HepG2; diabetes

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Paudel, P.; Seong, S.H.; Park, H.J.; Jung, H.A.; Choi, J.S. Anti-Diabetic Activity of 2,3,6-Tribromo-4,5-Dihydroxybenzyl Derivatives from Symphyocladia latiuscula through PTP1B Downregulation and α-Glucosidase Inhibition. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 166.

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