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Open AccessArticle

Fungal Diversity in Intertidal Mudflats and Abandoned Solar Salterns as a Source for Biological Resources

1
Division of Environmental Science & Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Department of Biosystems & Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
3
Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the article.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110601
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 18 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Microbial Diversity as Source of Bioactive Natural Products)
Intertidal zones are unique environments that are known to be ecological hot spots. In this study, sediments were collected from mudflats and decommissioned salterns on three islands in the Yellow Sea of South Korea. The diversity analysis targeted both isolates and unculturable fungi via Illumina sequencing, and the natural recovery of the abandoned salterns was assessed. The phylogeny and bioactivities of the fungal isolates were investigated. The community analysis showed that the abandoned saltern in Yongyudo has not recovered to a mudflat, while the other salterns have almost recovered. The results suggested that a period of more than 35 years may be required to return abandoned salterns to mudflats via natural restoration. Gigasporales sp. and Umbelopsis sp. were selected as the indicators of mudflats. Among the 53 isolates, 18 appeared to be candidate novel species, and 28 exhibited bioactivity. Phoma sp., Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium sp. and Pseudeurotium bakeri, and Aspergillus urmiensis showed antioxidant, tyrosinase inhibition, antifungal, and quorum-sensing inhibition activities, respectively, which has not been reported previously. This study provides reliable fungal diversity information for mudflats and abandoned salterns and shows that they are highly valuable for bioprospecting not only for novel microorganisms but also for novel bioactive compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal community; marine fungi; phylogenetic analysis; saltwork; tidal flat fungal community; marine fungi; phylogenetic analysis; saltwork; tidal flat
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Heo, Y.M.; Lee, H.; Kim, K.; Kwon, S.L.; Park, M.Y.; Kang, J.E.; Kim, G.-H.; Kim, B.S.; Kim, J.-J. Fungal Diversity in Intertidal Mudflats and Abandoned Solar Salterns as a Source for Biological Resources. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 601.

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