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Open AccessArticle

Naturally Drug-Loaded Chitin: Isolation and Applications

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Department of Microbiology, National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsia 21018, Ukraine
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Department of Pharmacy, National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsia 21018, Ukraine
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Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, TU Dresden, Dresden 01307, Germany
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V.P. Kukhar Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Murmanska Str. 1, Kyiv 02094, Ukraine
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Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, Poznan 60965, Poland
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Institute of Electronic and Sensor Materials, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner Str. 3, Freiberg 09599, Germany
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Leibniz Institute for Polymer Research Dresden, Dresden 01069, Germany
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Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Dresden 01307, Germany
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Institute of Marine Biology, University of Montenegro, Kotor 85330, Montenegro
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Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992, Russia
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Aquatic Zoology Department, Western Australian Museum, Locked Bag 49, Welshpool DC, Western Australia WA6986, Australia
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Department of Sciences of Earth, Environment and Life, University of Genoa, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova, Italy
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Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences & GeoBio-Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Richard-Wagner-Str. 10, Munich 80333, Germany
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Centre for Translational Bone, Joint and Soft Tissue Research, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus of Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307, Germany
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Medizinische Biologie und Elektronenmikroskopisches Zentrum (EMZ), Universitätsmedizin Rostock, Rostock 18055, Germany
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Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden 01307, Germany
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Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King’s College London, London WC2R 2LS, UK
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(10), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17100574
Received: 12 September 2019 / Revised: 5 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
Naturally occurring three-dimensional (3D) biopolymer-based matrices that can be used in different biomedical applications are sustainable alternatives to various artificial 3D materials. For this purpose, chitin-based structures from marine sponges are very promising substitutes. Marine sponges from the order Verongiida (class Demospongiae) are typical examples of demosponges with well-developed chitinous skeletons. In particular, species belonging to the family Ianthellidae possess chitinous, flat, fan-like fibrous skeletons with a unique, microporous 3D architecture that makes them particularly interesting for applications. In this work, we focus our attention on the demosponge Ianthella flabelliformis (Linnaeus, 1759) for simultaneous extraction of both naturally occurring (“ready-to-use”) chitin scaffolds, and biologically active bromotyrosines which are recognized as potential antibiotic, antitumor, and marine antifouling substances. We show that selected bromotyrosines are located within pigmental cells which, however, are localized within chitinous skeletal fibers of I. flabelliformis. A two-step reaction provides two products: treatment with methanol extracts the bromotyrosine compounds bastadin 25 and araplysillin-I N20 sulfamate, and a subsequent treatment with acetic acid and sodium hydroxide exposes the 3D chitinous scaffold. This scaffold is a mesh-like structure, which retains its capillary network, and its use as a potential drug delivery biomaterial was examined for the first time. The results demonstrate that sponge-derived chitin scaffolds, impregnated with decamethoxine, effectively inhibit growth of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in an agar diffusion assay. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitin; scaffolds; pigmental cells; demosponges; Ianthella; bromotyrosines; decamethoxine; drug delivery chitin; scaffolds; pigmental cells; demosponges; Ianthella; bromotyrosines; decamethoxine; drug delivery
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Kovalchuk, V.; Voronkina, A.; Binnewerg, B.; Schubert, M.; Muzychka, L.; Wysokowski, M.; Tsurkan, M.V.; Bechmann, N.; Petrenko, I.; Fursov, A.; Martinovic, R.; Ivanenko, V.N.; Fromont, J.; Smolii, O.B.; Joseph, Y.; Giovine, M.; Erpenbeck, D.; Gelinsky, M.; Springer, A.; Guan, K.; Bornstein, S.R.; Ehrlich, H. Naturally Drug-Loaded Chitin: Isolation and Applications. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 574.

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