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Open AccessArticle

Entomotoxic Activity of Prasiola crispa (Antarctic Algae) in Nauphoeta cinerea Cockroaches: Identification of Main Steroidal Compounds

1
Laboratório de Neurobiologia e Toxinologia (LANETOX),Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus São Gabriel, São Gabriel, RS 97307-020, Brazil
2
Instituto do Cérebro (INSCER), Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90610-000, Brazil
3
Núcleo de Estudos da Vegetação Antártica (NEVA), Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus São Gabriel, São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul 97307-020, Brazil
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Grupo de Pesquisa em Estresse Oxidativo e Sinalização Celular, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus São Gabriel, São Gabriel, RS 97307-020, Brazil
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Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências e Biotecnologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Centro, Niterói, RJ 24020-141, Brazil
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Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Neotropical, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22290-255, Brazil
7
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioquímica Toxicológica, PPGBtox, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, UFSM, Bairro Camobi, Santa Maria, RS 9705-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(10), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17100573
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins as Marine-Based Drug Discovery)
Prasiola crispa is a macroscopic green algae found in abundance in Antarctica ice free areas. Prasiola crispan-hexaneextract (HPC) induced insecticidal activity in Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches after 24 h of exposure. The chemical analysis of HPC revealed the presence of the followingphytosterols: β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. The incubation of cockroach semi-isolated heart preparations with HPC caused a significant negative chronotropic activity in the heartbeats. HPC affected the insect neuromuscular function by inducing a complete inhibition of the cockroach leg-muscle twitch tension. When the isolated phytosterols were injected at in vivo cockroach neuromuscular preparations, there was a progressive inhibition of muscle twitches on the following order of potency: β-sitosterol > campesterol > stigmasterol. HPC also provoked significant behavioral alterations, characterized by the increase or decrease of cockroach grooming activity, depending on the dose assayed. Altogether, the results presented here corroborate the insecticide potential of Prasiola crispa Antarctic algae. They also revealed the presence of phytosterols and the involvement of these steroidal compounds in the entomotoxic activity of the algae, potentially by modulating octopaminergic-cholinergic pathways. Further phytochemical-combined bioguided analysis of the HPC will unveil novel bioactive compounds that might be an accessory to the insecticide activity of the algae. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antarctic algae; biological activity; insecticide; marine steroids; marine natural products Antarctic algae; biological activity; insecticide; marine steroids; marine natural products
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Holken Lorensi, G.; Soares Oliveira, R.; Leal, A.P.; Zanatta, A.P.; Moreira de Almeida, C.G.; Barreto, Y.C.; Eduarda Rosa, M.; de Brum Vieira, P.; Brito Ramos, C.J.; de Carvalho Victoria, F.; Batista Pereira, A.; LaneuvilleTeixeira, V.; Dal Belo, C.A. Entomotoxic Activity of Prasiola crispa (Antarctic Algae) in Nauphoeta cinerea Cockroaches: Identification of Main Steroidal Compounds. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 573.

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