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Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010048

From Aggregates to Porous Three-Dimensional Scaffolds through a Mechanochemical Approach to Design Photosensitive Chitosan Derivatives

1
Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Sechenov University, 8-2 Trubetskaya st., Moscow 119991, Russia
2
Institute of Photonic Technologies, Research center “Crystallography and Photonics”, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 Pionerskaya st., Troitsk, Moscow 108840, Russia
3
Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymer Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, 70 Profsoyuznaya st., Moscow 117393, Russia
4
Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 6 Sakhyanovoy st., Ulan-Ude 670047, Russia
5
Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, 2-1 Bolshaya Pirogovskaya st., Moscow 119435, Russia
6
Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Kosygina st., Moscow 119991, Russia
7
National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI Galway), University Road, Galway H91 TK33, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Products for Biomedicine)
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Abstract

The crustacean processing industry produces large quantities of waste by-products (up to 70%). Such wastes could be used as raw materials for producing chitosan, a polysaccharide with a unique set of biochemical properties. However, the preparation methods and the long-term stability of chitosan-based products limit their application in biomedicine. In this study, different scale structures, such as aggregates, photo-crosslinked films, and 3D scaffolds based on mechanochemically-modified chitosan derivatives, were successfully formed. Dynamic light scattering revealed that aggregation of chitosan derivatives becomes more pronounced with an increase in the number of hydrophobic substituents. Although the results of the mechanical testing revealed that the plasticity of photo-crosslinked films was 5–8% higher than that for the initial chitosan films, their tensile strength remained unchanged. Different types of polymer scaffolds, such as flexible and porous ones, were developed by laser stereolithography. In vivo studies of the formed structures showed no dystrophic and necrobiotic changes, which proves their biocompatibility. Moreover, the wavelet analysis was used to show that the areas of chitosan film degradation were periodic. Comparing the results of the wavelet analysis and X-ray diffraction data, we have concluded that degradation occurs within less ordered amorphous regions in the polymer bulk. View Full-Text
Keywords: mechanochemical synthesis; chitosan; laser stereolithography; long-term stability; scaffold; tissue reaction mechanochemical synthesis; chitosan; laser stereolithography; long-term stability; scaffold; tissue reaction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bardakova, K.N.; Akopova, T.A.; Kurkov, A.V.; Goncharuk, G.P.; Butnaru, D.V.; Burdukovskii, V.F.; Antoshin, A.A.; Farion, I.A.; Zharikova, T.M.; Shekhter, A.B.; Yusupov, V.I.; Timashev, P.S.; Rochev, Y.A. From Aggregates to Porous Three-Dimensional Scaffolds through a Mechanochemical Approach to Design Photosensitive Chitosan Derivatives. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 48.

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