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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(5), 171;

Isolation and Composition Analysis of Bioactive Glycosaminoglycans from Whelk

School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester M5 4WT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
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Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are found covalently attached to proteins, which create conjugates known as proteoglycans. GAGs have remarkable biological activity as co-receptors for a variety of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. The present study identifies the key compositional differences between the GAGs isolated from whelk and mammalian GAGs. This polysaccharide represents a new, previously undescribed GAG with cytotoxic activity on cancer cells. Disaccharides were obtained by sample digestion with heparinases I, II, and III and chondroitinase ABC. The resistant oligosaccharides from whelk GAGs treated with heparinase I, II, and III and chondroitinase ABC were retained by the filter due to their larger size. Disaccharide analysis was performed using Glycan Reduction Isotope Labeling (GRIL LCQ-MS). The amounts of filter-retained fragments, as assessed by monosaccharides analysis, suggested that a proportion of the whelk GAG chains remained resistant to the enzymes used in the disaccharide analysis. Thus, the proportions of individual disaccharide produced in this analysis may not truly represent the overall proportions of disaccharide types within the intact whelk GAGs chain. However, they do serve as important descriptors for the classification and make-up of the anti-cancer GAGs chains. Furthermore, these data represent clear evidence of the compositional differences between whelk GAGs and commercial mammalian GAGs. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycosaminoglycans; marine mollusca; anti-cancer, anti-proliferation; heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycans; marine mollusca; anti-cancer, anti-proliferation; heparan sulphate

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Khurshid, C.; Pye, D.A. Isolation and Composition Analysis of Bioactive Glycosaminoglycans from Whelk. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 171.

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