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The Anti-Cancer Effects of Frondoside A

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
Coastside Bio Resources, Deer Isle, ME 04627, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 64;
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 19 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycosides)
PDF [434 KB, uploaded 23 February 2018]


Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside from the Atlantic Sea Cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa. Frondoside A has a broad spectrum of anti-cancer effects, including induction of cellular apoptosis, inhibition of cancer cell growth, migration, invasion, formation of metastases, and angiogenesis. In cell lines and animal models studied to date, the anti-cancer effects of the compound are seen in all solid cancers, lymphomas, and leukemias studied to date. These effects appear to be due to potent inhibition of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), which is up-regulated in many cancers. In mouse models, frondoside A has synergistic effects with conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and cisplatin. Frondoside A administration is well-tolerated. No side effects have been reported and the compound has no significant effects on body weight, blood cells, or on hepatic and renal function tests after long-term administration. Frondoside A may be valuable in the treatment of malignancies, either as a single agent or in combination with other therapeutic modalities. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; frondoside A; tumor growth; metastases; apoptosis; invasion; angiogenesis cancer; frondoside A; tumor growth; metastases; apoptosis; invasion; angiogenesis

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Adrian, T.E.; Collin, P. The Anti-Cancer Effects of Frondoside A. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 64.

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