Next Article in Journal
New Insights into the Culture Method and Antibacterial Potential of Gracilaria gracilis
Next Article in Special Issue
A Strategy to Replace the Mouse Bioassay for Detecting and Identifying Lipophilic Marine Biotoxins by Combining the Neuro-2a Bioassay and LC-MS/MS Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Red Seaweed Grateloupia imbricata with Emphasis on Reproductive Potential
Previous Article in Special Issue
Addressing the Issue of Tetrodotoxin Targeting
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(12), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16120491

iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of a Toxigenic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella at Different Stages of Toxin Biosynthesis during the Cell Cycle

1
State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361000, China
2
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Ecology and Environment, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300, China
3
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xiamen University Tan KahKee College, Zhangzhou 363105, China
4
Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology & Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins as Marine-Based Drug Discovery)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3675 KB, uploaded 7 December 2018]   |  

Abstract

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of potent neurotoxic alkaloids that are produced mainly by marine dinoflagellates. PST biosynthesis in dinoflagellates is a discontinuous process that is coupled to the cell cycle. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying this association. Here, we compared global protein expression profiles of a toxigenic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella, collected at four different stages of toxin biosynthesis during the cell cycle, using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic approach. The results showed that toxin biosynthesis occurred mainly in the G1 phase, especially the late G1 phase. In total, 7232 proteins were confidently identified, and 210 proteins exhibited differential expression among the four stages. Proteins involved in protein translation and photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis were significantly upregulated during toxin biosynthesis, indicating close associations among the three processes. Nine toxin-related proteins were detected, and two core toxin biosynthesis proteins, namely, sxtA and sxtI, were identified for the first time in dinoflagellates. Among these proteins, sxtI and ompR were significantly downregulated when toxin biosynthesis stopped, indicating that they played important roles in the regulation of PST biosynthesis. Our study provides new insights into toxin biosynthesis in marine dinoflagellates: nitrogen balance among different biological processes regulates toxin biosynthesis, and that glutamate might play a key modulatory role. View Full-Text
Keywords: dinoflagellates; Alexandrium catenella; paralytic shellfish toxins; cell cycle; toxin biosynthesis; quantitative proteomics; iTRAQ dinoflagellates; Alexandrium catenella; paralytic shellfish toxins; cell cycle; toxin biosynthesis; quantitative proteomics; iTRAQ
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, S.-F.; Zhang, Y.; Lin, L.; Wang, D.-Z. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of a Toxigenic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella at Different Stages of Toxin Biosynthesis during the Cell Cycle. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 491.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top