Next Article in Journal
Limonoids Containing a C1O–C29 Moiety: Isolation, Structural Modification, and Antiviral Activity
Previous Article in Journal
Extraction of Astaxanthin and Lutein from Microalga Haematococcus pluvialis in the Red Phase Using CO2 Supercritical Fluid Extraction Technology with Ethanol as Co-Solvent
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cyanopeptolins with Trypsin and Chymotrypsin Inhibitory Activity from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc edaphicum CCNP1411
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110433

The Antibacterial and Anti-Eukaryotic Type VI Secretion System MIX-Effector Repertoire in Vibrionaceae

1
Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
2
Department of Biotechnology Engineering, ORT Braude College of Engineering, Karmiel 2161002, Israel
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 4 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bacterial Toxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [8653 KB, uploaded 8 November 2018]   |  

Abstract

Vibrionaceae is a widespread family of aquatic bacteria that includes emerging pathogens and symbionts. Many Vibrionaceae harbor a type VI secretion system (T6SS), which is a secretion apparatus used to deliver toxins, termed effectors, into neighboring cells. T6SSs mediate both antibacterial and anti-eukaryotic activities. Notably, antibacterial effectors are encoded together with a gene that encodes a cognate immunity protein so as to antagonize the toxicity of the effector. The MIX (Marker for type sIX effectors) domain has been previously defined as a marker of T6SS effectors carrying polymorphic C-terminal toxins. Here, we set out to identify the Vibrionaceae MIX-effector repertoire and to analyze the various toxin domains they carry. We used a computational approach to search for the MIX-effectors in the Vibrionaceae genomes, and grouped them into clusters based on the C-terminal toxin domains. We classified MIX-effectors as either antibacterial or anti-eukaryotic, based on the presence or absence of adjacent putative immunity genes, respectively. Antibacterial MIX-effectors carrying pore-forming, phospholipase, nuclease, peptidoglycan hydrolase, and protease activities were found. Furthermore, we uncovered novel virulence MIX-effectors. These are encoded by “professional MIXologist” strains that employ a cocktail of antibacterial and anti-eukaryotic MIX-effectors. Our findings suggest that certain Vibrionaceae adapted their antibacterial T6SS to mediate interactions with eukaryotic hosts or predators. View Full-Text
Keywords: T6SS; vibrio; MIX-effector; toxin; secretion; virulence; antibacterial T6SS; vibrio; MIX-effector; toxin; secretion; virulence; antibacterial
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dar, Y.; Salomon, D.; Bosis, E. The Antibacterial and Anti-Eukaryotic Type VI Secretion System MIX-Effector Repertoire in Vibrionaceae. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 433.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top