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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110412

Potential Utilization of a Polysaccharide from the Marine Algae Gayralia oxysperma, as an Antivenom for Viperidae Snakebites

1
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Federal Fluminense University, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro 24020-141, Brazil
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná 81531-980, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins from Animal Venoms, Research and Development Center, Ezequiel Dias Foundation, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30510-010, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 27 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Origin Agents for Therapy of Neglected Diseases)
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Abstract

Worldwide, snakebites have serious implications for human health. The administration of antivenom is the official treatment used to reverse the toxic activities of envenomation. However, this therapy is not efficient to treat the local effects, leading to the amputation or deformity of affected limbs. As such, alternative treatments are needed. Here, we analyze the ability of a polysaccharide from the green marine alga Gayralia oxysperma (Go3) to inhibit the effects of venom from Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta. B. jararaca or L. muta venoms were incubated together with sulfated heterorhamnans from Go3, and the in vitro (coagulation, proteolytic, and hemolytic) and in vivo (hemorrhagic, myotoxic, edematogenic, and lethal) activities of venoms were assessed. Additionally, Go3 was injected before and after the injection of venoms, and the toxic activities were further tested. When incubated with the venoms, Go3 inhibited all activities, though results varied with different potencies. Moreover, Go3 neutralized hemorrhagic, myotoxic, and edematogenic activities when injected before or after injection with B. jararaca and L. muta venom. Go3 also blocked the coagulation of plasma in mice caused by the venoms in an ex vivo test. Therefore, Go3 has the potential to be used as antivenom for B. jararaca and L. muta bites, notably exhibiting higher efficacy on L. muta venom. View Full-Text
Keywords: snake venom; Bothrops jararaca; Lachesis muta; green marine alga; Gayralia oxysperma; polysaccharide; neutralization; antivenom snake venom; Bothrops jararaca; Lachesis muta; green marine alga; Gayralia oxysperma; polysaccharide; neutralization; antivenom
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

da Silva, A.C.R.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Noseda, M.D.; Ferreira, L.G.; Cassolato, J.E.F.; Sanchez, E.F.; Fuly, A.L. Potential Utilization of a Polysaccharide from the Marine Algae Gayralia oxysperma, as an Antivenom for Viperidae Snakebites. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 412.

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