Next Article in Journal
The Marine Natural Product Pseudopterosin Blocks Cytokine Release of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Monocytic Leukemia Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling
Next Article in Special Issue
Chemical Synthesis of Marine-Derived Sulfoglycolipids, a New Class of Molecular Adjuvants
Previous Article in Journal
Identification and Antifungal Activity of Compounds from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus clavatus R7
Previous Article in Special Issue
Anti-Coagulant and Anti-Thrombotic Properties of Blacklip Abalone (Haliotis rubra): In Vitro and Animal Studies
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(8), 261;

Myticalins: A Novel Multigenic Family of Linear, Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Mussels (Mytilus spp.)

Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, via Bonomea 265, Trieste 34136, Italy
Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 5, Trieste 34127, Italy
Genzentrum, Ludwig Maximilian Universität, Feodor Lynen Straβe 25, München 81377, Germany
Department of Biology, University of Padova, Via Bassi 58/B, Padova 35131, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Target Identification of Marine Products)
PDF [7630 KB, uploaded 22 August 2017]


The application of high-throughput sequencing technologies to non-model organisms has brought new opportunities for the identification of bioactive peptides from genomes and transcriptomes. From this point of view, marine invertebrates represent a potentially rich, yet largely unexplored resource for de novo discovery due to their adaptation to diverse challenging habitats. Bioinformatics analyses of available genomic and transcriptomic data allowed us to identify myticalins, a novel family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, and a similar family of AMPs from Modiolus spp., named modiocalins. Their coding sequence encompasses two conserved N-terminal (signal peptide) and C-terminal (propeptide) regions and a hypervariable central cationic region corresponding to the mature peptide. Myticalins are taxonomically restricted to Mytiloida and they can be classified into four subfamilies. These AMPs are subject to considerable interindividual sequence variability and possibly to presence/absence variation. Functional assays performed on selected members of this family indicate a remarkable tissue-specific expression (in gills) and broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall, we present the first linear AMPs ever described in marine mussels and confirm the great potential of bioinformatics tools for the de novo discovery of bioactive peptides in non-model organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial peptide; innate immunity; Mytilus galloprovincialis; proline-rich; hypervariability antimicrobial peptide; innate immunity; Mytilus galloprovincialis; proline-rich; hypervariability

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Leoni, G.; De Poli, A.; Mardirossian, M.; Gambato, S.; Florian, F.; Venier, P.; Wilson, D.N.; Tossi, A.; Pallavicini, A.; Gerdol, M. Myticalins: A Novel Multigenic Family of Linear, Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Mussels (Mytilus spp.). Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 261.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top