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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(4), 119;

Indole Derivatives Isolated from Brown Alga Sargassum thunbergii Inhibit Adipogenesis through AMPK Activation in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02445, USA
Department of Animal Bio and Applied Chemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea
Jeju International Marine Science Center for Research & Education, Korea Institute of Ocean Science &Technology (KIOST), Jeju 63349, Korea
Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Obesity and Comorbidities Research Center, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Campinas 02134, Brazil
Division of Food Bioscience and Korea Nokyong Research Center, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this study.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Allen Place, Paul Long, Rosemary Jagus and Joy Watts
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology II 2016)
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Seaweed, a popular and abundant food ingredient mainly consumed in Asian countries, is a good source of bioactive compounds with anti-obesity effects. However, the anti-obesity effects of Sargassum thunbergii have not yet been established. In this study, we isolated six indole derivatives (STCs)—indole-2-carboxaldehyde (STC-1), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (STC-2), indole-4-carboxaldehyde (STC-3), indole-5-carboxaldehyde (STC-4), indole-6-carboxaldehyde (STC-5), and indole-7-carboxaldehyde (STC-6)—from S. thunbergii and evaluated their inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. We found that STC-1 and STC-5 resulted in non-toxic inhibition of the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and thus selected these compounds for further study. STC-1 and STC-5 significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) in a dose-dependent manner. The specific mechanism mediating the effects of STC-1 and STC-5 was shown to be AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Our results demonstrated the inhibitory effect of STC-1 and STC-5 on adipogenesis through the activation of the AMPK signal pathway. Together, these findings suggested that STC-1 and STC-5 may be effective candidates for the prevention of obesity or obesity-related diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-obesity effect; adipocyte; Sargassum thunbergii; indole derivatives anti-obesity effect; adipocyte; Sargassum thunbergii; indole derivatives

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Kang, M.-C.; Ding, Y.; Kim, E.-A.; Choi, Y.K.; de Araujo, T.; Heo, S.-J.; Lee, S.-H. Indole Derivatives Isolated from Brown Alga Sargassum thunbergii Inhibit Adipogenesis through AMPK Activation in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 119.

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