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Open AccessArticle

The Influence of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the Distribution and Chemical Coding of Caudal Mesenteric Ganglion (CaMG) Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder

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Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland
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Department of Animal Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
3
Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn,10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peer B. Jacobson
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15040101
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
The treatment of micturition disorders creates a serious problem for urologists. Recently, new therapeutic agents, such as neurotoxins, are being considered for the therapy of urological patients. The present study investigated the chemical coding of caudal mesenteric ganglion (CaMG) neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after intravesical instillation of tetrodotoxin (TTX). The CaMG neurons were visualized with retrograde tracer Fast blue (FB) and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labeling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), calbindin (CB), galanin (GAL) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). It was found that in both the control (n = 6) and TTX-treated pigs (n = 6), the vast majority (92.6% ± 3.4% and 88.8% ± 2%, respectively) of FB-positive (FB+) nerve cells were TH+. TTX instillation caused a decrease in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunopositive to NPY (88.9% ± 5.3% in the control animals vs. 10.6% ± 5.3% in TTX-treated pigs) or VIP (1.7% ± 0.6% vs. 0%), and an increase in the number of FB+/TH+ neurons immunoreactive to SOM (8.8% ± 1.6% vs. 39% ± 12.8%), CB (1.8% ± 0.7% vs. 12.6% ± 2.7%), GAL (1.7% ± 0.8% vs. 10.9% ± 2.6%) or nNOS (0% vs. 1.1% ± 0.3%). The present study is the first to suggest that TTX modifies the chemical coding of CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; caudal mesenteric ganglion; urinary bladder; immunohistochemistry; pig tetrodotoxin; caudal mesenteric ganglion; urinary bladder; immunohistochemistry; pig
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Lepiarczyk, E.; Bossowska, A.; Kaleczyc, J.; Majewska, M.; Gonkowski, S.; Majewski, M. The Influence of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the Distribution and Chemical Coding of Caudal Mesenteric Ganglion (CaMG) Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 101.

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