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Growth, Toxin Production and Allelopathic Effects of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries under Iron-Enriched Conditions

1
Centro de Estudos do Mar, Universidade Federal do Paraná, P.O. Box 1, Pontal do Paraná 83255-976, PR, Brazil
2
Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Av. Abraão João Francisco, 3899, Itajaí 88307-303, SC, Brazil
3
Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália, km 8, Carreiros, Rio Grande 96203-900, RS, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(10), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15100331
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Harmful Marine Phytoplankton)
In order to assess the effects of Fe-enrichment on the growth and domoic acid (DA) production of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, static cultures that received the addition of different iron (Fe) concentrations were maintained for 30 days. Intra- and extracellular DA concentrations were evaluated over time, and growth and chain-formation were compared to those of non-toxic diatoms, Bacillaria sp. Growth rates of P. multiseries (μ = 0.45–0.73 d−1) were similar among cultures containing different Fe concentrations. Likewise, the similar incidence and length of P. multiseries stepped cell chains (usually 2–4; up to 8-cell long) among the treatments reinforces that the cultures were not growth-inhibited under any condition tested, suggesting an efficient Fe acquisition mechanism. Moreover, DA concentrations were significantly higher under the highest Fe concentration, indicating that Fe is required for toxin synthesis. Bacillaria sp. reached comparable growth rates under the same Fe concentrations, except when the dissolved cell contents from a P. multiseries culture was added. The 50–70% reduction in cell density and 70–90% decrease in total chlorophyll-a content of Bacillaria sp. at early stationary growth phase indicates, for the first time, an allelopathic effect of undetermined compounds released by Pseudo-nitzschia to another diatom species. View Full-Text
Keywords: harmful algae; toxic diatoms; domoic acid; phycotoxins; allelopathy; iron fertilization harmful algae; toxic diatoms; domoic acid; phycotoxins; allelopathy; iron fertilization
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Sobrinho, B.F.; De Camargo, L.M.; Sandrini-Neto, L.; Kleemann, C.R.; Machado, E.C.; Mafra, L.L. Growth, Toxin Production and Allelopathic Effects of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries under Iron-Enriched Conditions. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 331.

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