Quantification of Representative Ciguatoxins in the Pacific Using Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
AbstractThe absolute quantification of five toxins involved in ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in the Pacific was carried out by quantitative 1H-NMR. The targeted toxins were ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 52-epi-54-deoxyciguatoxin-1B (epideoxyCTX1B), ciguatoxin-3C (CTX3C), 51-hydroxyciguatoxin-3C (51OHCTX3C), and ciguatoxin-4A (CTX4A). We first calibrated the residual protons of pyridine-d5 using certified reference material, 1,4-BTMSB-d4, prepared the toxin solutions with the calibrated pyridin-d5, measured the 1H-NMR spectra, and quantified the toxin using the calibrated residual protons as the internal standard. The absolute quantification was carried out by comparing the signal intensities between the selected protons of the target toxin and the residual protons of the calibrated pyridine-d5. The proton signals residing on the ciguatoxins (CTXs) to be used for quantification were carefully selected for those that were well separated from adjacent signals including impurities and that exhibited an effective intensity. To quantify CTX1B and its congeners, the olefin protons in the side chain were judged appropriate for use. The quantification was achievable with nano-molar solutions. The probable errors for uncertainty, calculated on respective toxins, ranged between 3% and 16%. The contamination of the precious toxins with nonvolatile internal standards was thus avoided. After the evaporation of pyridine-d5, the calibrated CTXs were ready for use as the reference standard in the quantitative analysis of ciguatoxins by LC/MS. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Kato, T.; Yasumoto, T. Quantification of Representative Ciguatoxins in the Pacific Using Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 309.
Kato T, Yasumoto T. Quantification of Representative Ciguatoxins in the Pacific Using Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Marine Drugs. 2017; 15(10):309.Chicago/Turabian Style
Kato, Tsuyoshi; Yasumoto, Takeshi. 2017. "Quantification of Representative Ciguatoxins in the Pacific Using Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy." Mar. Drugs 15, no. 10: 309.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.