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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Temperature on Growth and Production of Pectenotoxin-2 by a Monoclonal Culture of Dinophysis caudata

Department of Ocean Sciences, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan
National research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-8648, Japan
Nagasaki Prefectural Institute of Fisheries, 1551-4 Taira, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 851-2213, Japan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cherie Motti
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(12), 7124-7137;
Received: 5 June 2015 / Revised: 1 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Okadaic Acid and Dinophysis Toxins)
PDF [1806 KB, uploaded 3 December 2015]


The effects of temperature on growth and production of Lipophilic Toxins (LT) by a monoclonal culture of Dinophysis caudata was studied. The cell density of D. caudata increased significantly with increasing temperature, and was the highest under 27, 30, and 32.5 °C. Temperature affected the average specific growth rate (µ) during the exponential growth phase (EG), which increased from 15 °C to 30 °C, and then decreased at 32.5 °C. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that this strain of D. caudata produced only pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) whose concentration increased significantly with incubation period, except at 32.5 °C. It was significantly different between temperatures ≤18 °C, ≥21 °C, and 32.5 °C. The cellular toxin production (CTP, pg·cell−1·day−1) showed variation with growth phase and temperature, except at 32.5 °C. The average net toxin production (Rtox) was not affected by temperature. During EG, the average specific toxin production rate (µtox) increased significantly with increase in temperature, reaching a peak of 0.66 ± 0.01 day−1 at 30 °C, and then decreased. Over the entire growth span, µtox was significantly correlated to µ, and this correlation was most significant at 27 and 30 °C. During EG, µtox was affected by both temperature and growth. This study shows that temperature affects growth and toxin production of this strain of D. caudata during EG. In addition, a positive correlation was found between toxin production and growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dinophysis caudata; culture; growth; pectenotoxin-2; temperature Dinophysis caudata; culture; growth; pectenotoxin-2; temperature

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Basti, L.; Uchida, H.; Matsushima, R.; Watanabe, R.; Suzuki, T.; Yamatogi, T.; Nagai, S. Influence of Temperature on Growth and Production of Pectenotoxin-2 by a Monoclonal Culture of Dinophysis caudata. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 7124-7137.

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