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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(1), 288-311;

Araguspongine C Induces Autophagic Death in Breast Cancer Cells through Suppression of c-Met and HER2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling

Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, 1800 Bienville Drive, Monroe, LA 71201, USA
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, Safat 13110, Kuwait
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sergey A. Dyshlovoy
Received: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 8 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Compounds and Cancer)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1410 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  


Receptor tyrosine kinases are key regulators of cellular growth and proliferation. Dysregulations of receptor tyrosine kinases in cancer cells may promote tumorigenesis by multiple mechanisms including enhanced cell survival and inhibition of cell death. Araguspongines represent a group of macrocyclic oxaquinolizidine alkaloids isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia species. This study evaluated the anticancer activity of the known oxaquinolizidine alkaloids araguspongines A, C, K and L, and xestospongin B against breast cancer cells. Araguspongine C inhibited the proliferation of multiple breast cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, araguspongine C-induced autophagic cell death in HER2-overexpressing BT-474 breast cancer cells was characterized by vacuole formation and upregulation of autophagy markers including LC3A/B, Atg3, Atg7, and Atg16L. Araguspongine C-induced autophagy was associated with suppression of c-Met and HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Further in-silico docking studies and cell-free Z-LYTE assays indicated the potential of direct interaction between araguspongine C and the receptor tyrosine kinases c-Met and HER2 at their kinase domains. Remarkably, araguspongine C treatment resulted in the suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade in breast cancer cells undergoing autophagy. Induction of autophagic death in BT-474 cells was also associated with decreased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor upon treatment with effective concentration of araguspongine C. In conclusion, results of this study are the first to reveal the potential of araguspongine C as an inhibitor to receptor tyrosine kinases resulting in the induction of autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: araguspongine C; autophagy; breast cancer; c-Met; HER2 araguspongine C; autophagy; breast cancer; c-Met; HER2

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Akl, M.R.; Ayoub, N.M.; Ebrahim, H.Y.; Mohyeldin, M.M.; Orabi, K.Y.; Foudah, A.I.; Sayed, K.A.E. Araguspongine C Induces Autophagic Death in Breast Cancer Cells through Suppression of c-Met and HER2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 288-311.

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