Next Article in Journal
Secondary Metabolites from the Soft Coral Sinularia arborea
Next Article in Special Issue
Cephalopods as Vectors of Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins in Marine Food Webs
Previous Article in Journal
Pharmacological Studies of Tentacle Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata in Isolated Rat Aorta
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evolution and Distribution of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(9), 3350-3371;

Cytotoxicity, Fractionation and Dereplication of Extracts of the Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum, a Producer of Pinnatoxin G

Ifremer, Laboratoire Phycotoxines, Centre Atlantique, 44311 Nantes Cedex, France
MMS EA2160, Faculté de Pharmacie, LUNAM, Université de Nantes, 44035 Nantes, France
Unité de Toxicologie des Contaminants, ANSES, 35302 Fougères, France
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 June 2013 / Revised: 18 July 2013 / Accepted: 7 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Shellfish Toxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [731 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  


Pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) is a marine toxin belonging to the class of cyclic imines and produced by the dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum. In spite of its strong toxicity to mice, leading to the classification of pinnatoxins into the class of “fast-acting toxins”, its hazard for human health has never been demonstrated. In this study, crude extracts of V. rugosum exhibited significant cytotoxicity against Neuro2A and KB cells. IC50 values of 0.38 µg mL−1 and 0.19 µg mL−1 were estimated on Neuro2A cells after only 24 h of incubation and on KB cells after 72 h of incubation, respectively. In the case of Caco-2 cells 48 h after exposure, the crude extract of V. rugosum induced cell cycle arrest accompanied by a dramatic increase in double strand DNA breaks, although only 40% cytotoxicity was observed at the highest concentration tested (5 µg mL−1). However, PnTX-G was not a potent cytotoxic compound as no reduction of the cell viability was observed on the different cell lines. Moreover, no effects on the cell cycle or DNA damage were observed following treatment of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells with PnTX-G. The crude extract of V. rugosum was thus partially purified using liquid-liquid partitioning and SPE clean-up. In vitro assays revealed strong activity of some fractions containing no PnTX-G. The crude extract and the most potent fraction were evaluated using full scan and tandem high resolution mass spectrometry. The dereplication revealed the presence of a major compound that could be putatively annotated as nakijiquinone A, N-carboxy-methyl-smenospongine or stachybotrin A, using the MarinLit™ database. Further investigations will be necessary to confirm the identity of the compounds responsible for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the extracts of V. rugosum. View Full-Text
Keywords: dereplication; cyclic imine; HRMS; bioactivity; pinnatoxins dereplication; cyclic imine; HRMS; bioactivity; pinnatoxins

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary materials


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Geiger, M.; Desanglois, G.; Hogeveen, K.; Fessard, V.; Leprêtre, T.; Mondeguer, F.; Guitton, Y.; Hervé, F.; Séchet, V.; Grovel, O.; Pouchus, Y.-F.; Hess, P. Cytotoxicity, Fractionation and Dereplication of Extracts of the Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum, a Producer of Pinnatoxin G. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 3350-3371.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top