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Open AccessReview

Glycosylation of Conotoxins

NMR Spectroscopy, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands
Atheris Laboratories, Case postale 314, CH-1233 Bernex-Geneva, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(3), 623-642;
Received: 14 December 2012 / Revised: 25 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 1 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates)
PDF [1028 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]


Conotoxins are small peptides present in the venom of cone snails. The snail uses this venom to paralyze and capture prey. The constituent conopeptides display a high level of chemical diversity and are of particular interest for scientists as tools employed in neurological studies and for drug development, because they target with exquisite specificity membrane receptors, transporters, and various ion channels in the nervous system. However, these peptides are known to contain a high frequency and variability of post-translational modifications—including sometimes O-glycosylation—which are of importance for biological activity. The potential application of specific conotoxins as neuropharmalogical agents and chemical probes requires a full characterization of the relevant peptides, including the structure of the carbohydrate part. In this review, the currently existing knowledge of O-glycosylation of conotoxins is described. View Full-Text
Keywords: cone snails; glycopeptide; glycosylation; l-galactose; neuropeptide; O-glycan; post-translational modification; venom cone snails; glycopeptide; glycosylation; l-galactose; neuropeptide; O-glycan; post-translational modification; venom

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Gerwig, G.J.; Hocking, H.G.; Stöcklin, R.; Kamerling, J.P.; Boelens, R. Glycosylation of Conotoxins. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 623-642.

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