Next Article in Journal
New Steroids from the Soft Coral Nephthea chabrolii
Next Article in Special Issue
Thalassospiramide G, a New γ-Amino-Acid-Bearing Peptide from the Marine Bacterium Thalassospira sp.
Previous Article in Journal
Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp.
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sources of Secondary Metabolite Variation in Dysidea avara (Porifera: Demospongiae): The Importance of Having Good Neighbors
 
 
Short Note

Probing a Coral Genome for Components of the Photoprotective Scytonemin Biosynthetic Pathway and the 2-Aminoethylphosphonate Pathway

Marine Genomics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(2), 559-570; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11020559
Received: 9 January 2013 / Revised: 1 February 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 22 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
Genome sequences of the reef-building coral, Acropora digitifera, have been decoded. Acropora inhabits an environment with intense ultraviolet exposure and hosts the photosynthetic endosymbiont, Symbiodinium. Acropora homologs of all four genes necessary for biosynthesis of the photoprotective cyanobacterial compound, shinorine, are present. Among metazoans, these genes are found only in anthozoans. To gain further evolutionary insights into biosynthesis of photoprotective compounds and associated coral proteins, we surveyed the Acropora genome for 18 clustered genes involved in cyanobacterial synthesis of the anti-UV compound, scytonemin, even though it had not previously been detected in corals. We identified candidates for only 6 of the 18 genes, including tyrP, scyA, and scyB. Therefore, it does not appear that Acropora digitifera can synthesize scytonemin independently. On the other hand, molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that one tyrosinase gene is an ortholog of vertebrate tyrosinase genes and that the coral homologs, scyA and scyB, are similar to bacterial metabolic genes, phosphonopyruvate (ppyr) decarboxylase and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), respectively. Further genomic searches for ppyr gene-related biosynthetic components indicate that the coral possesses a metabolic pathway similar to the bacterial 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) biosynthetic pathway. The results suggest that de novo synthesis of carbon-phosphorus compounds is performed in corals. View Full-Text
Keywords: coral genome; sunscreen; MAA; scytonemin; tyrosinase; phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase; glutamate dehydrogenase; 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) pathway coral genome; sunscreen; MAA; scytonemin; tyrosinase; phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase; glutamate dehydrogenase; 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) pathway
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Shoguchi, E.; Tanaka, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Shinzato, C.; Satoh, N. Probing a Coral Genome for Components of the Photoprotective Scytonemin Biosynthetic Pathway and the 2-Aminoethylphosphonate Pathway. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 559-570. https://doi.org/10.3390/md11020559

AMA Style

Shoguchi E, Tanaka M, Takeuchi T, Shinzato C, Satoh N. Probing a Coral Genome for Components of the Photoprotective Scytonemin Biosynthetic Pathway and the 2-Aminoethylphosphonate Pathway. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(2):559-570. https://doi.org/10.3390/md11020559

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shoguchi, Eiichi, Makiko Tanaka, Takeshi Takeuchi, Chuya Shinzato, and Nori Satoh. 2013. "Probing a Coral Genome for Components of the Photoprotective Scytonemin Biosynthetic Pathway and the 2-Aminoethylphosphonate Pathway" Marine Drugs 11, no. 2: 559-570. https://doi.org/10.3390/md11020559

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop