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Article

The Effects of Exercise Habit on Albuminuria and Metabolic Indices in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of Nursing, Taoyuan Armed Forces General Hospital Hsinchu Branch, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
2
Department of Emergency Medicine, Taoyuan Armed Forces General Hospital, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan
3
Department of Nursing, Taoyuan Armed Forces General Hospital, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan
4
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
5
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taoyuan Armed Forces General Hospital, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan
6
Department of Life Sciences, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan
7
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University Hospital, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 242, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Marcin Kurowski and Radosław Gawlik
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58050577
Received: 17 February 2022 / Revised: 1 April 2022 / Accepted: 15 April 2022 / Published: 23 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise-Induced Changes in Immunology)
Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) can cause macrovascular and microvascular complications, potentially resulting in further life-threatening complications. In general, the global prevalence of type 2 DM is increasing. To date, the care of DM comprises three aspects: diet, medication and exercise; among them, exercise is the most economical. Albuminuria is associated with renal injury and the progress of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effects of habitual exercise in patients with new onset of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have not been generally recognized. Our aim was to conduct an observational study regarding the effects of regular exercise on proteinuria and associated metabolic indices in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM. To investigate the effects of an exercise habit on albuminuria and the metabolic indices including renal function, blood glucose, and plasma lipids among patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on newly diagnosed DM patients in two teaching hospitals in Taiwan from 1 June to 31 December 2020. The DM patients participated in the Diabetes Shared Care Network. According to the DM care mode, the patients’ blood biochemical results were analysed. Based on exercise duration, the patients were divided into two groups, i.e., the exercise group (≥150 min per week) and the non-exercise group (<150 min per week). Clinical demographic features and laboratory examination including blood and urine biochemistries were determined. Results: A total of 229 patients including 99 males (43.2%) and 130 females (56.8%) participated in the study. The proportion of DM patients with normoalbuminuria was higher (p < 0.05) in the exercise group (69.8%) than in the non-exercise group (53.7%), and the proportion of DM patients with micro or macroalbuminuria was lower in the exercise group (30.2%) than in the non-exercise group (46.3%). Levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were significantly different in both groups. Compared with the non-exercise group, lower HbA1c (6.89 ± 0.69 vs. 7.16 ± 1.05%) (p < 0.05), lower FPG (121.9 ± 25.7 vs. 140.5 ± 42.4 mg/dL) (p < 0.05), lower TG (115.6 ± 53.6 vs. 150.2 ± 15.4 mg/dL) (p < 0.05), and higher HDL (50.3 ± 11.4 vs. 44.1 ± 9.26 mg/dL) (p < 0.05) levels were noted in the exercise group. Conclusions: Regular exercise remains imperative and may bear an impact on albuminuria, blood glucose, and plasma lipids among type 2 DM patients. Therefore, medical staff and healthcare providers should encourage patients to maintain an exercise duration ≥150 min per week for preventing and controlling DM progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; exercise habit; albuminuria; metabolic indices; blood glucose; plasma lipid diabetes mellitus; exercise habit; albuminuria; metabolic indices; blood glucose; plasma lipid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuo, H.-Y.; Huang, Y.-H.; Wu, S.-W.; Chang, F.-H.; Tsuei, Y.-W.; Fan, H.-C.; Chiang, W.-F.; Hsiao, P.-J. The Effects of Exercise Habit on Albuminuria and Metabolic Indices in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study. Medicina 2022, 58, 577. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58050577

AMA Style

Kuo H-Y, Huang Y-H, Wu S-W, Chang F-H, Tsuei Y-W, Fan H-C, Chiang W-F, Hsiao P-J. The Effects of Exercise Habit on Albuminuria and Metabolic Indices in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study. Medicina. 2022; 58(5):577. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58050577

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kuo, Hsin-Yi, Ya-Hui Huang, Su-Wen Wu, Feng-Hsun Chang, Yi-Wei Tsuei, Hsin-Chiung Fan, Wen-Fang Chiang, and Po-Jen Hsiao. 2022. "The Effects of Exercise Habit on Albuminuria and Metabolic Indices in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study" Medicina 58, no. 5: 577. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58050577

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