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The Role of Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase and AMP-Activated Kinase in the Rapid Estrogenic Attenuation of Cannabinoid-Induced Changes in Energy Homeostasis

Cannabidiol in Humans—The Quest for Therapeutic Targets

Multiple Sclerosis Clinic, Foothills Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
Fernand-Seguin Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec H1N 3V2, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5(5), 529-552;
Received: 20 April 2012 / Revised: 14 May 2012 / Accepted: 15 May 2012 / Published: 21 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Marijuana)
Cannabidiol (CBD), a major phytocannabinoid constituent of cannabis, is attracting growing attention in medicine for its anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, up to this point, a comprehensive literature review of the effects of CBD in humans is lacking. The aim of the present systematic review is to examine the randomized and crossover studies that administered CBD to healthy controls and to clinical patients. A systematic search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE using the key word “cannabidiol”. Both monotherapy and combination studies (e.g., CBD + ∆9-THC) were included. A total of 34 studies were identified: 16 of these were experimental studies, conducted in healthy subjects, and 18 were conducted in clinical populations, including multiple sclerosis (six studies), schizophrenia and bipolar mania (four studies), social anxiety disorder (two studies), neuropathic and cancer pain (two studies), cancer anorexia (one study), Huntington’s disease (one study), insomnia (one study), and epilepsy (one study). Experimental studies indicate that a high-dose of inhaled/intravenous CBD is required to inhibit the effects of a lower dose of ∆9-THC. Moreover, some experimental and clinical studies suggest that oral/oromucosal CBD may prolong and/or intensify ∆9-THC-induced effects, whereas others suggest that it may inhibit ∆9-THC-induced effects. Finally, preliminary clinical trials suggest that high-dose oral CBD (150–600 mg/d) may exert a therapeutic effect for social anxiety disorder, insomnia and epilepsy, but also that it may cause mental sedation. Potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic explanations for these results are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: cannabidiol; THC; cannabis; multiple sclerosis; pain; social anxiety disorder; epilepsy; insomnia; schizophrenia cannabidiol; THC; cannabis; multiple sclerosis; pain; social anxiety disorder; epilepsy; insomnia; schizophrenia
MDPI and ACS Style

Zhornitsky, S.; Potvin, S. Cannabidiol in Humans—The Quest for Therapeutic Targets. Pharmaceuticals 2012, 5, 529-552.

AMA Style

Zhornitsky S, Potvin S. Cannabidiol in Humans—The Quest for Therapeutic Targets. Pharmaceuticals. 2012; 5(5):529-552.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhornitsky, Simon, and Stéphane Potvin. 2012. "Cannabidiol in Humans—The Quest for Therapeutic Targets" Pharmaceuticals 5, no. 5: 529-552.

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