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Open AccessArticle

Ingested Type I Interferon—State of the Art as Treatment for Autoimmunity Part 2

Multiple Sclerosis Research Group, Department of Neurology, MSB 7.044, 6431 Fannin St., University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(4), 1108-1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph3041108
Received: 25 January 2010 / Revised: 19 March 2010 / Accepted: 1 April 2010 / Published: 14 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interferons)
We have proposed a unifying hypothesis of the etiopathogenesis of autoimmunity that defines autoimmunity as a type I interferon (IFN) immunodeficiency syndrome. We have examined toxicity and potential efficacy in two phase I (type 1 diabetes [T1D], multiple sclerosis [MS]) and phase II clinical trials in T1D and MS. In a phase I open label trial in T1D, ingested IFN-alpha preserved residual beta-cell function in recent onset patients. In a second phase I trial in MS, there was a significant decrease in peripheral blood mononuclear cell IL-2 and IFN-gamma production after ingesting IFN-alpha. In a phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in MS, 10,000 IU ingested IFN-alpha significantly decreased gadolinium enhancements compared to the placebo group at month 5. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma cytokine secretion in the 10,000 IU group at month 5 showed a significant decrease that corresponded with the effect of ingested IFN-alpha on decreasing gadolinium enhancements. In a phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in T1D, patients in the 5,000 unit hrIFN-alpha treatment group maintained more beta-cell function one year after study enrollment compared to individuals in the placebo group. Ingested IFN-alpha was not toxic in these clinical trials. These studies suggest that ingested IFN-alpha may have a potential role in the treatment of autoimmunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: autoimmunity; multiple sclerosis; Type I diabetes; Type I interferon; GALT; protein ingestion autoimmunity; multiple sclerosis; Type I diabetes; Type I interferon; GALT; protein ingestion
MDPI and ACS Style

Brod, S.A. Ingested Type I Interferon—State of the Art as Treatment for Autoimmunity Part 2. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 1108-1121.

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