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Review

Beyond Lipid-Lowering: Effects of Statins on Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases and Cancer

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Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center, 2-1001-1 Kubara, Omura 856-8562, Japan
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Care and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
3
Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501, Japan
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Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98108, USA
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Department of Cardiology, National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center, 2-1001-1 Kubara, Omura 856-8562, Japan
6
BBB Laboratory, PharmaCo-Cell Company Ltd., Dai-ichi-senshu bldg. 2nd Floor, 6-19 Chitose-machi, Nagasaki 852-8135, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jacek Bil
Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15020151
Received: 30 December 2021 / Revised: 21 January 2022 / Accepted: 24 January 2022 / Published: 26 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Statins Use and Cancer)
The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, are administered as first-line therapy for hypercholesterolemia, both as primary and secondary prevention. Besides the lipid-lowering effect, statins have been suggested to inhibit the development of cardiovascular disease through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, vascular endothelial function-improving, plaque-stabilizing, and platelet aggregation-inhibiting effects. The preventive effect of statins on atherothrombotic stroke has been well established, but statins can influence other cerebrovascular diseases. This suggests that statins have many neuroprotective effects in addition to lowering cholesterol. Furthermore, research suggests that statins cause pro-apoptotic, growth-inhibitory, and pro-differentiation effects in various malignancies. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that statins inhibit tumor growth and induce apoptosis in specific cancer cell types. The pleiotropic effects of statins on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases have been well established; however, the effects of statins on cancer patients have not been fully elucidated and are still controversial. This review discusses the recent evidence on the effects of statins on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and cancer. Additionally, this study describes the pharmacological action of statins, focusing on the aspect of ‘beyond lipid-lowering’. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; cerebrovascular diseases; cardiovascular diseases; pleiotropic effect; statin cancer; cerebrovascular diseases; cardiovascular diseases; pleiotropic effect; statin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morofuji, Y.; Nakagawa, S.; Ujifuku, K.; Fujimoto, T.; Otsuka, K.; Niwa, M.; Tsutsumi, K. Beyond Lipid-Lowering: Effects of Statins on Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases and Cancer. Pharmaceuticals 2022, 15, 151. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15020151

AMA Style

Morofuji Y, Nakagawa S, Ujifuku K, Fujimoto T, Otsuka K, Niwa M, Tsutsumi K. Beyond Lipid-Lowering: Effects of Statins on Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases and Cancer. Pharmaceuticals. 2022; 15(2):151. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15020151

Chicago/Turabian Style

Morofuji, Yoichi, Shinsuke Nakagawa, Kenta Ujifuku, Takashi Fujimoto, Kaishi Otsuka, Masami Niwa, and Keisuke Tsutsumi. 2022. "Beyond Lipid-Lowering: Effects of Statins on Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases and Cancer" Pharmaceuticals 15, no. 2: 151. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15020151

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