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Review

In Vitro Studies on Nasal Formulations of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN)

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UCIBIO/REQUIMTE, MEDTECH, Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Drug Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
2
UCIBIO/REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
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CNC—Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), Faculty of Medicine (Pólo I), University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal
4
UC—University of Coimbra, CIBB, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
5
FP-ENAS (UFP Energy, Environment and Health Research Unit), CEBIMED (Biomedical Research Centre), Faculty of Health Sciences, University Fernando Pessoa, 4249-004 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dimitris Tsiourvas
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(8), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080711
Received: 20 June 2021 / Revised: 13 July 2021 / Accepted: 21 July 2021 / Published: 23 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Insights on Lipid-Based Nanosystems)
The nasal route has been used for many years for the local treatment of nasal diseases. More recently, this route has been gaining momentum, due to the possibility of targeting the central nervous system (CNS) from the nasal cavity, avoiding the blood−brain barrier (BBB). In this area, the use of lipid nanoparticles, such as nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), in nasal formulations has shown promising outcomes on a wide array of indications such as brain diseases, including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and gliomas. Herein, the state of the art of the most recent literature available on in vitro studies with nasal formulations of lipid nanoparticles is discussed. Specific in vitro cell culture models are needed to assess the cytotoxicity of nasal formulations and to explore the underlying mechanism(s) of drug transport and absorption across the nasal mucosa. In addition, different studies with 3D nasal casts are reported, showing their ability to predict the drug deposition in the nasal cavity and evaluating the factors that interfere in this process, such as nasal cavity area, type of administration device and angle of application, inspiratory flow, presence of mucoadhesive agents, among others. Notwithstanding, they do not preclude the use of confirmatory in vivo studies, a significant impact on the 3R (replacement, reduction and refinement) principle within the scope of animal experiments is expected. The use of 3D nasal casts to test nasal formulations of lipid nanoparticles is still totally unexplored, to the authors best knowledge, thus constituting a wide open field of research. View Full-Text
Keywords: nasal administration; nanostructured lipid carriers; solid lipid nanoparticles; in vitro cell cultures; 3D nasal casts nasal administration; nanostructured lipid carriers; solid lipid nanoparticles; in vitro cell cultures; 3D nasal casts
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MDPI and ACS Style

Costa, C.P.; Barreiro, S.; Moreira, J.N.; Silva, R.; Almeida, H.; Sousa Lobo, J.M.; Silva, A.C. In Vitro Studies on Nasal Formulations of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN). Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 711. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080711

AMA Style

Costa CP, Barreiro S, Moreira JN, Silva R, Almeida H, Sousa Lobo JM, Silva AC. In Vitro Studies on Nasal Formulations of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN). Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(8):711. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080711

Chicago/Turabian Style

Costa, Cláudia P., Sandra Barreiro, João N. Moreira, Renata Silva, Hugo Almeida, José M. Sousa Lobo, and Ana C. Silva 2021. "In Vitro Studies on Nasal Formulations of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN)" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 8: 711. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14080711

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