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Antiviral Agents in Development for Zika Virus Infections
Open AccessReview

Therapeutic Advances Against ZIKV: A Quick Response, a Long Way to Go

Department of Biotechnology, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), 28040 Madrid, Spain
Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12030127
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 15 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 30 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zika Virus: Therapeutic Advances)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that spread throughout the American continent in 2015 causing considerable worldwide social and health alarm due to its association with ocular lesions and microcephaly in newborns, and Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) cases in adults. Nowadays, no licensed vaccines or antivirals are available against ZIKV, and thus, in this very short time, the scientific community has conducted enormous efforts to develop vaccines and antivirals. So that, different platforms (purified inactivated and live attenuated viruses, DNA and RNA nucleic acid based candidates, virus-like particles, subunit elements, and recombinant viruses) have been evaluated as vaccine candidates. Overall, these vaccines have shown the induction of vigorous humoral and cellular responses, the decrease of viremia and viral RNA levels in natural target organs, the prevention of vertical and sexual transmission, as well as that of ZIKV-associated malformations, and the protection of experimental animal models. Some of these vaccine candidates have already been assayed in clinical trials. Likewise, the search for antivirals have also been the focus of recent investigations, with dozens of compounds tested in cell culture and a few in animal models. Both direct acting antivirals (DAAs), directed to viral structural proteins and enzymes, and host acting antivirals (HAAs), directed to cellular factors affecting all steps of the viral life cycle (binding, entry, fusion, transcription, translation, replication, maturation, and egress), have been evaluated. It is expected that this huge collaborative effort will produce affordable and effective therapeutic and prophylactic tools to combat ZIKV and other related still unknown or nowadays neglected flaviviruses. Here, a comprehensive overview of the advances made in the development of therapeutic measures against ZIKV and the questions that still have to be faced are summarized. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zika virus; vaccines; direct acting antivirals (DAAs); host acting antivirals (HAAs) Zika virus; vaccines; direct acting antivirals (DAAs); host acting antivirals (HAAs)
MDPI and ACS Style

Saiz, J.-C. Therapeutic Advances Against ZIKV: A Quick Response, a Long Way to Go. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 127.

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