LoRaWAN Behaviour Analysis through Dataset Traffic Investigation
- We aim at defining and using some performance metrics useful to evaluate LoRaWAN, as a network. As far as we know the contribution is new since few works have provided a way to process real LoRaWAN datasets to derive performance indicators. The most of the proposals in the literature are based on simulations while we have developed software tools to apply the metrics on any dataset;
- We designed and presented the procedures implemented in our software tool that can be used to analyse real-world LoRaWAN data;
- We tested these procedures on a large and heterogeneous dataset that contain data collected from a big LoRaWAN ecosystem with 9 gateways and used for several distinct IoT applications.
2. LoRaWAN in a Nutshell
- DevEUI: It is a global end-device ID in IEEE EUI64 address space that uniquely identifies the ED. DevEUI is the recommended unique device identifier by Network Servers, whatever activation procedure is used, to identify a device roaming across networks;
- JoinEUI: The JoinEUI is a global application ID in IEEE EUI64 address space that uniquely identifies the Join Server that is able to assist in the processing of the Join procedure and the session keys derivation;
- NwkKey and AppKey: They are AES-128 root keys specific to the end-device that are assigned to the ED during fabrication.
2.3. LoRa Physical Packet Structure
2.4. LoRa Applications and Related Research
3. LoED: LoRaWAN Dataset
- time: Time at which the packet was received by the gateway;
- physical payload: Raw payload contained in the received packet;
- gateway: Identifier of the gateway that has received the packet;
- crc status: Physical layer CRC;
- frequency: Transmission frequency;
- Spreading Factor: Transmission SF of the packet;
- bandwidth: Bandwidth used by the received packet;
- code-rate: LoRa coding-rate of the packet;
- RSSI: Sampled RSSI value of packet reception;
- SNR: Sampled SNR value of packet reception;
- device-address: Device-address of the device that has sent the packet;
- mtype: mtype bit fields of the packet;
- fcnt: Counter value of the packet;
- fport: Port of the packet.
4. LoRaWAN Analysis
- Gateway radio indicators;
- Packets loss;
- Device–Gateway interaction;
- End-Device addressing and activation;
- Duty-Cycle enforcement;
- Performance of De-duplication procedure.
4.1. Gateway Radio Indicators
4.2. Packets Loss
4.3. Device-Gateway Interaction
4.4. End-Device Addressing and Activation
- Number of join request: ;
- Rejoin request: ;
- Join accept: .
4.5. Duty-Cycle Enforcement
- Find the period of time of connection of the device to the network, computed as where is the first time in which the device is seen in the network and is the last time in which the device is seen in the network;
- Compute the amount of time in which the device was active, we find this amount time by sum all the ToA of the packets sent by the device;
- Compute the duty-cycle percentage as
- Preamble ;
- Spreading factor of the packet ;
- Length of the payload P of the packet;
- Bandwidth used to transmit the packet expressed in Hz.
4.6. Performance of De-Duplication Procedure
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|ABP||Activation By Personalization|
|ADR||Adaptive Data Rate|
|CSS||Chirp Spread Spectrum|
|DevEUI||Device Extended Unique Identifier|
|FCntDown||Frame Counter Downlink|
|FCntUp||Frame Counter Uplink|
|ISM||Industrial Scientific and Medical|
|LoED||LoRaWAN at the Edge Dataset|
|MIC||Message Integrity Code|
|RSSI||Received Signal Strength Indicator|
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|Gateway Number||Gateway ID|
|Message Type||Total Number of Packets||Number of Distinct Packets|
|Spreading Factor||Bit Rate [bps]|
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Spadaccino, P.; Crinó, F.G.; Cuomo, F. LoRaWAN Behaviour Analysis through Dataset Traffic Investigation. Sensors 2022, 22, 2470. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22072470
Spadaccino P, Crinó FG, Cuomo F. LoRaWAN Behaviour Analysis through Dataset Traffic Investigation. Sensors. 2022; 22(7):2470. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22072470Chicago/Turabian Style
Spadaccino, Pietro, Francesco Giuseppe Crinó, and Francesca Cuomo. 2022. "LoRaWAN Behaviour Analysis through Dataset Traffic Investigation" Sensors 22, no. 7: 2470. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22072470