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Article

Survey on Optimization Methods for LEO-Satellite-Based Networks with Applications in Future Autonomous Transportation

1
Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, 33720 Tampere, Finland
2
Department of Radio Science and Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: César Briso-Rodríguez, Ke Guan, Andrej Hrovat and Youyun Xu
Sensors 2022, 22(4), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22041421
Received: 22 December 2021 / Revised: 5 February 2022 / Accepted: 7 February 2022 / Published: 12 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Communications in Intelligent Transportation Systems)
Future autonomous transportation is one of the most demanding application areas in terms of connectivity, as it has to simultaneously meet stringent criteria that do not typically go hand in hand, such as high throughput, low latency, high coverage/availability, high positioning and sensing accuracies, high security and robustness to interferences, etc. In order to meet the future demands of challenging applications, such as applications relying on autonomous vehicles, terrestrial networks are no longer sufficient and are to be augmented in the future with satellite-based networks. Among the emerging satellite networks, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) networks are able to provide advantages over traditional Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Geo-Stationary Earth Orbit (GEO) networks in terms of signal latency, cost, and performance. Nevertheless, several challenges exist in LEO system design, which have not been fully addressed in the existing literature. In particular, the problem of LEO-system optimization of design parameters is a multi-dimensional problem with many aspects to be considered. This paper offers a comprehensive survey of the LEO-system design parameters, of the challenges in LEO system design process, and of the optimization methods for satellite communication, positioning, and sensing applications, as well as a summarizing discussion on the design considerations for LEO-based networks to support future autonomous transportation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks; autonomous transportation; optimization criteria; multi-target design; space segment; ground segment; user segment Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks; autonomous transportation; optimization criteria; multi-target design; space segment; ground segment; user segment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Çelikbilek, K.; Saleem, Z.; Morales Ferre, R.; Praks, J.; Lohan, E.S. Survey on Optimization Methods for LEO-Satellite-Based Networks with Applications in Future Autonomous Transportation. Sensors 2022, 22, 1421. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22041421

AMA Style

Çelikbilek K, Saleem Z, Morales Ferre R, Praks J, Lohan ES. Survey on Optimization Methods for LEO-Satellite-Based Networks with Applications in Future Autonomous Transportation. Sensors. 2022; 22(4):1421. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22041421

Chicago/Turabian Style

Çelikbilek, Kaan, Zainab Saleem, Ruben Morales Ferre, Jaan Praks, and Elena Simona Lohan. 2022. "Survey on Optimization Methods for LEO-Satellite-Based Networks with Applications in Future Autonomous Transportation" Sensors 22, no. 4: 1421. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22041421

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