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Review

Robotic Biofeedback for Post-Stroke Gait Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review

1
Center for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (CMEMS), University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
2
LABBELS-Associate Laboratory, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
3
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
4
Clinical Academic Center (2CA-Braga), Hospital of Braga, 4710-243 Braga, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrey V. Savkin
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7197; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197197
Received: 16 August 2022 / Revised: 14 September 2022 / Accepted: 20 September 2022 / Published: 22 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensorimotor and Cognitive Wearable Augmentation Devices)
This review aims to recommend directions for future research on robotic biofeedback towards prompt post-stroke gait rehabilitation by investigating the technical and clinical specifications of biofeedback systems (BSs), including the complementary use with assistive devices and/or physiotherapist-oriented cues. A literature search was conducted from January 2019 to September 2022 on Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, PEDro, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Data regarding technical (sensors, biofeedback parameters, actuators, control strategies, assistive devices, physiotherapist-oriented cues) and clinical (participants’ characteristics, protocols, outcome measures, BSs’ effects) specifications of BSs were extracted from the relevant studies. A total of 31 studies were reviewed, which included 660 stroke survivors. Most studies reported visual biofeedback driven according to the comparison between real-time kinetic or spatiotemporal data from wearable sensors and a threshold. Most studies achieved statistically significant improvements on sensor-based and clinical outcomes between at least two evaluation time points. Future research should study the effectiveness of using multiple wearable sensors and actuators to provide personalized biofeedback to users with multiple sensorimotor deficits. There is space to explore BSs complementing different assistive devices and physiotherapist-oriented cues according to their needs. There is a lack of randomized-controlled studies to explore post-stroke stage, mental and sensory effects of BSs. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofeedback mode; biofeedback parameter; human sensing; motor recovery; robotics rehabilitation; sensorimotor augmentation; stroke biofeedback mode; biofeedback parameter; human sensing; motor recovery; robotics rehabilitation; sensorimotor augmentation; stroke
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pinheiro, C.; Figueiredo, J.; Cerqueira, J.; Santos, C.P. Robotic Biofeedback for Post-Stroke Gait Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review. Sensors 2022, 22, 7197. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197197

AMA Style

Pinheiro C, Figueiredo J, Cerqueira J, Santos CP. Robotic Biofeedback for Post-Stroke Gait Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review. Sensors. 2022; 22(19):7197. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197197

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pinheiro, Cristiana, Joana Figueiredo, João Cerqueira, and Cristina P. Santos. 2022. "Robotic Biofeedback for Post-Stroke Gait Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review" Sensors 22, no. 19: 7197. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197197

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