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Article

Determination of Lamb Wave Modes on Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Piezoelectric Transducers

1
Center for Low-Emission Transport, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Giefinggasse 2, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2
Institute of Electrical Measurement and Sensor Systems, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 33/I, 8010 Graz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Theodore E. Matikas
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 4748; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134748
Received: 26 April 2022 / Revised: 9 June 2022 / Accepted: 20 June 2022 / Published: 23 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sensors in Structural Health Monitoring)
This work presents a method to determine the type of Lamb mode (antisymmetric or symmetric) that propagates through a lithium-ion pouch cell. To determine the type of mode and the group velocity at a specific frequency, two- and three-transducer setups were created. For these setups, it is important that all transducers have the same polarization direction. Two transducers are affixed to the center of the cell at a distance of several centimeters from each other so that the group velocity can be determined. Using cross-correlation, the group velocity of the emerging mode can be calculated. The measurement setup and the processing method was first validated with experiments on acrylic glass and aluminum plates. The measurements were supported with FEM simulations and a numerically calculated model. The output voltages of the receiving piezo-elements obtained in the FEM simulation are in agreement with the underlying theories. The phase shift, which results from the output voltage of the piezo-elements mounted one above the other on different sides of the plate, shows the type of mode. The results of the experimental determination of the Lamb mode that propagates through a lithium-ion pouch cell were validated with a numerically calculated multi-layer model and therefore validate this novel experimental approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium-ion batteries; Lamb waves; piezoelectric transducer; battery management system; structural health monitoring lithium-ion batteries; Lamb waves; piezoelectric transducer; battery management system; structural health monitoring
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koller, M.; Glanz, G.; Bergmann, A.; Popp, H. Determination of Lamb Wave Modes on Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Piezoelectric Transducers. Sensors 2022, 22, 4748. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134748

AMA Style

Koller M, Glanz G, Bergmann A, Popp H. Determination of Lamb Wave Modes on Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Piezoelectric Transducers. Sensors. 2022; 22(13):4748. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134748

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koller, Markus, Gregor Glanz, Alexander Bergmann, and Hartmut Popp. 2022. "Determination of Lamb Wave Modes on Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Piezoelectric Transducers" Sensors 22, no. 13: 4748. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134748

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