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Investigating Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Estimating Blood Flow-Induced Variations in Human Forearm
Article

Towards Estimating Arterial Diameter Using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy: A Computational Simulation and Tissue Phantom Analysis

Institute of Biomedical Technologies, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ruben Specogna and Antonio Affanni
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 4736; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134736
Received: 25 May 2022 / Revised: 13 June 2022 / Accepted: 21 June 2022 / Published: 23 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electromagnetic Sensors for Biomedical Applications)
This paper improves the accuracy of quantification in the arterial diameter-dependent impedance variance by altering the electrode configuration. The finite element analysis was implemented with a 3D human wrist fragment using ANSYS Electronics Desktop, containing fat, muscle, and a blood-filled radial artery. Then, the skin layer and bones were stepwise added, helping to understand the dielectric response of multi-tissues and blood flow from 1 kHz to 1 MHz, the current distribution throughout the wrist, and the optimisation of electrode configurations for arterial pulse sensing. Moreover, a low-cost wrist phantom was fabricated, containing two components: the surrounding tissue simulant (20 wt % gelatine power and 0.017 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution) and the blood simulant (0.08 M NaCl solution). The blood-filled artery was constricted using a desktop injection pump, and the impedance change was measured by the Multi-frequency Impedance Analyser (MFIA). The simulation revealed the promising capabilities of band electrodes to generate a more uniform current distribution than the traditional spot electrodes. Both simulation and phantom experimental results indicated that a longer spacing between current-carrying (CC) electrodes with shorter spacing between pick-up (PU) electrodes in the middle could sense a more uniform electric field, engendering a more accurate arterial diameter estimation. This work provided an improved electrode configuration for more accurate arterial diameter estimation from the numerical simulation and tissue phantom perspectives. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrical impedance spectroscopy; bio-impedance measurement; forearm; artery diameter; finite element analysis; computational simulation; tissue phantom electrical impedance spectroscopy; bio-impedance measurement; forearm; artery diameter; finite element analysis; computational simulation; tissue phantom
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, Y.; Anand, G.; Lowe, A.; Zhang, H.; Kalra, A. Towards Estimating Arterial Diameter Using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy: A Computational Simulation and Tissue Phantom Analysis. Sensors 2022, 22, 4736. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134736

AMA Style

Yu Y, Anand G, Lowe A, Zhang H, Kalra A. Towards Estimating Arterial Diameter Using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy: A Computational Simulation and Tissue Phantom Analysis. Sensors. 2022; 22(13):4736. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134736

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yu, Yang, Gautam Anand, Andrew Lowe, Huiyang Zhang, and Anubha Kalra. 2022. "Towards Estimating Arterial Diameter Using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy: A Computational Simulation and Tissue Phantom Analysis" Sensors 22, no. 13: 4736. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134736

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