This paper improves the accuracy of quantification in the arterial diameter-dependent impedance variance by altering the electrode configuration. The finite element analysis was implemented with a 3D human wrist fragment using ANSYS Electronics Desktop, containing fat, muscle, and a blood-filled radial artery. Then, the skin layer and bones were stepwise added, helping to understand the dielectric response of multi-tissues and blood flow from 1 kHz to 1 MHz, the current distribution throughout the wrist, and the optimisation of electrode configurations for arterial pulse sensing. Moreover, a low-cost wrist phantom was fabricated, containing two components: the surrounding tissue simulant (20 wt % gelatine power and 0.017 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution) and the blood simulant (0.08 M NaCl solution). The blood-filled artery was constricted using a desktop injection pump, and the impedance change was measured by the Multi-frequency Impedance Analyser (MFIA). The simulation revealed the promising capabilities of band electrodes to generate a more uniform current distribution than the traditional spot electrodes. Both simulation and phantom experimental results indicated that a longer spacing between current-carrying (CC) electrodes with shorter spacing between pick-up (PU) electrodes in the middle could sense a more uniform electric field, engendering a more accurate arterial diameter estimation. This work provided an improved electrode configuration for more accurate arterial diameter estimation from the numerical simulation and tissue phantom perspectives.
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