# Rapid Test Method for Multi-Beam Profile of Phased Array Antennas

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Theory and Methods

_{j}(j = 1, 2, …, M), where, E

_{j}= E(θ

_{j}, ϕ

_{j}). Equation (6) can be easily derived from Equation (5), as below,

- Install the PAA on the test system turntable and adjust the center of the antenna to coincide with the center of the rotation system,
- Use the beam controller to adjust the PAA to a certain main beam orientation (${\theta}_{0},\text{}{\phi}_{0}$) and test the radiation pattern ${E}_{0}$,
- Obtain the weighted element port excitation I of the designated beam orientation (${\theta}_{0},\text{}{\phi}_{0}$),
- Obtain the simulation radiation pattern F of all the elements in the array with the coupling factor being considered,
- Use Equation (10) to calculate the excitation coefficient C of this antenna,
- Obtain the element port excitation ${I}_{x}$ at the beam orientation (${\theta}_{x},{\phi}_{x}$), which is desired to be predicted,
- Calculate the radiation pattern ${E}_{x}$ of the beam orientation (${\theta}_{x},{\phi}_{x}$) using Equation (11),
- Adjust the PAA to the beam orientation (${\theta}_{x},{\phi}_{x}$) with the wave controller, and measure the actual radiation pattern $\tilde{{E}_{x}}$ of this beam orientation,
- Compare ${E}_{x}$ and $\tilde{{E}_{x}}$.

## 3. Results

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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(15, 0) | 3 dB Beam Width (°) | Beam Orientation Accuracy θ (°) | First Left Side Lobe Peak (dB) | First Right Side Lobe Peak (dB) | Cross-Pol. (dB) ^{1} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Measured | 4.18 | 15.01 | −14.58 | −18.19 | 19.57 |

Predicted | 4.25 | 15.02 | −15.33 | −18.17 | 19.69 |

Deviation | 0.07 | 0.01 | −0.75 | 0.02 | 0.12 |

^{1}The cross-polarization is the maximum difference between the main polarization and the cross-polarization within a 3 dB beamwidth.

(30, 0) | 3 dB Beam Width (°) | Beam Orientation Accuracy θ (°) | First Left Side Lobe Peak (dB) | First Right Side Lobe Peak (dB) | Cross-Pol. (dB) ^{1} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Measured | 4.54 | 30.01 | −14.94 | −17.44 | −21.75 |

Predicted | 4.66 | 30.01 | −15.55 | −17.76 | −24.46 |

Deviation | 0.12 | 0 | 0.61 | 0.32 | 2.71 |

^{1}The cross-polarization is the maximum difference between the main polarization and the cross-polarization within a 3 dB beamwidth.

(60, 0) | 3 dB Beam Width (°) | Beam Orientation Accuracy θ (°) | First Left Side Lobe Peak (dB) | First Right Side Lobe Peak (dB) | Cross-Pol. (dB) ^{1} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Measured | 7.84 | 59.99 | −11.79 | −22.62 | −14.01 |

Predicted | 8.11 | 59.97 | −13.21 | −22.07 | −12.95 |

Deviation | 0.27 | 0.02 | 1.42 | 0.55 | −1.06 |

^{1}The cross-polarization is the maximum difference between the main polarization and the cross-polarization within a 3 dB beamwidth.

Item | Source Reconstruction Method | Pattern Reconstruction Method | Conventional Method |
---|---|---|---|

Coefficient C calculating (min) | 1 | 0 | 0 |

Beam patterns measured number | 1 | 80 (EST) | 217 |

Beam patterns measured time (min) | 30 | 2400 | 6510 |

Beam patterns projection time (min) | 108 | 204 (EST) | - |

Total duration (min) | 139 | 2604 | 6510 |

Time cost reduction (%) | 97% | 40% | - |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Luo, Q.; Zhou, Y.; Qi, Y.; Ye, P.; de Paulis, F.; Liu, L.
Rapid Test Method for Multi-Beam Profile of Phased Array Antennas. *Sensors* **2022**, *22*, 47.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010047

**AMA Style**

Luo Q, Zhou Y, Qi Y, Ye P, de Paulis F, Liu L.
Rapid Test Method for Multi-Beam Profile of Phased Array Antennas. *Sensors*. 2022; 22(1):47.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010047

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Luo, Qingchun, Yantao Zhou, Yihong Qi, Pu Ye, Francesco de Paulis, and Lie Liu.
2022. "Rapid Test Method for Multi-Beam Profile of Phased Array Antennas" *Sensors* 22, no. 1: 47.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010047