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Article

Multisensor Data Fusion for Localization of Pollution Sources in Wastewater Networks

Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Charalampos Konstantopoulos and Annie Lanzolla
Sensors 2022, 22(1), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010387
Received: 19 October 2021 / Revised: 22 December 2021 / Accepted: 30 December 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022
Illegal discharges of pollutants into sewage networks are a growing problem in large European cities. Such events often require restarting wastewater treatment plants, which cost up to a hundred thousand Euros. A system for localization and quantification of pollutants in utility networks could discourage such behavior and indicate a culprit if it happens. We propose an enhanced algorithm for multisensor data fusion for the detection, localization, and quantification of pollutants in wastewater networks. The algorithm processes data from multiple heterogeneous sensors in real-time, producing current estimates of network state and alarms if one or many sensors detect pollutants. Our algorithm models the network as a directed acyclic graph, uses adaptive peak detection, estimates the amount of specific compounds, and tracks the pollutant using a Kalman filter. We performed numerical experiments for several real and artificial sewage networks, and measured the quality of discharge event reconstruction. We report the correctness and performance of our system. We also propose a method to assess the importance of specific sensor locations. The experiments show that the algorithm’s success rate is equal to sensor coverage of the network. Moreover, the median distance between nodes pointed out by the fusion algorithm and nodes where the discharge was introduced equals zero when more than half of the network nodes contain sensors. The system can process around 5000 measurements per second, using 1 MiB of memory per 4600 measurements plus a constant of 97 MiB, and it can process 20 tracks per second, using 1.3 MiB of memory per 100 tracks. View Full-Text
Keywords: sensors; data fusion; tracking; peak detection; sewage network; IoT sensors; data fusion; tracking; peak detection; sewage network; IoT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chachuła, K.; Słojewski, T.M.; Nowak, R. Multisensor Data Fusion for Localization of Pollution Sources in Wastewater Networks. Sensors 2022, 22, 387. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010387

AMA Style

Chachuła K, Słojewski TM, Nowak R. Multisensor Data Fusion for Localization of Pollution Sources in Wastewater Networks. Sensors. 2022; 22(1):387. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010387

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chachuła, Krystian, Tomasz Michał Słojewski, and Robert Nowak. 2022. "Multisensor Data Fusion for Localization of Pollution Sources in Wastewater Networks" Sensors 22, no. 1: 387. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22010387

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