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Article

Blind Watermarking of Color Medical Images Using Hadamard Transform and Fractional-Order Moments

1
Department of Information Technology, Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christoph M. Friedrich
Sensors 2021, 21(23), 7845; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21237845 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 October 2021 / Revised: 18 November 2021 / Accepted: 21 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sensing and Imaging)
This paper proposes a new blind, color image watermarking method using fast Walsh–Hadamard transformation (FWHT) and multi-channel fractional Legendre–Fourier moments (MFrLFMs). The input host color image is first split into 4 × 4 non-interfering blocks, and the MFrLFMs are computed for each block, where proper MFrLFMs coefficients are selected and FWHT is applied on the selected coefficients. The scrambled binary watermark has been inserted in the quantized selected MFrLFMs coefficients. The proposed method is a blind extraction, as the original host image is not required to extract the watermark. The proposed method is evaluated over many visual imperceptibility terms such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), normalized correlation (NC), and bit error rate. The robustness of the proposed method is tested over several geometrical attacks such as scaling, rotation, cropping, and translation with different parameter values. The most widely recognized image processing attacks are also considered, e.g., compressing and adding noise attacks. A set of combination attacks are also tested to analyze the robustness of the proposed scheme versus several attacks. The proposed model’s experimental and numerical results for invisibility and robustness were superior to the results of similar watermarking methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: blind watermarking; color medical images; geometric attacks; fractional-order moments; fast Walsh–Hadamard transform blind watermarking; color medical images; geometric attacks; fractional-order moments; fast Walsh–Hadamard transform
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdel-Aziz, M.M.; Hosny, K.M.; Lashin, N.A.; Fouda, M.M. Blind Watermarking of Color Medical Images Using Hadamard Transform and Fractional-Order Moments. Sensors 2021, 21, 7845. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21237845

AMA Style

Abdel-Aziz MM, Hosny KM, Lashin NA, Fouda MM. Blind Watermarking of Color Medical Images Using Hadamard Transform and Fractional-Order Moments. Sensors. 2021; 21(23):7845. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21237845

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abdel-Aziz, Mostafa M., Khalid M. Hosny, Nabil A. Lashin, and Mostafa M. Fouda 2021. "Blind Watermarking of Color Medical Images Using Hadamard Transform and Fractional-Order Moments" Sensors 21, no. 23: 7845. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21237845

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